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World TV. Getting up close globally and doing distance locally. In the beginning there was…. BBC World CNN These broadcast worldwide and were seen by travellers in hotels and airports in all time zones at all hours Rolling news was pioneered by CNN

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World TV

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World TV

Getting up closeglobally and doingdistancelocally

Alison Duguid University of Siena

In the beginningtherewas…

  • BBC World

  • CNN

  • These broadcast worldwide and wereseenbytravellers in hotels and airports in alltimezones at allhours

  • Rolling news waspioneeredby CNN

  • BBBC World had regular news bulletins and otherprogrammesofgeneral interest

  • Advertisementsaimed at travellerswithanincome

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Notlike National News

  • National News (e.g. BBC, ITV) means:

  • A fairlygeographicallydefinedimmagined community

  • Werecogniseconsonance and relevancetothis community

  • Localreferences, proximity news values

  • Prime timesynchrony, day-definedrecencynewvalues

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Roleofevening news

  • Evening news plays a pivotal role in political communication, as it is involved in the construction of political meaning, the formation of the political agenda and public opinion (Hallin 1994: 10; see also GUMG 1993; Jensen 1998; Mc Combs, Einsiedel and Weaves 1996; Robinson and Levy 1986).

Alison Duguid University of Siena

The social functionof news

  • , “social constructionist” studies (Schudson 1991: 149) have drawn attention to the social function of news as a vehicle for the transmission and reproduction of dominant ideologies (GUMG 1976, 1993; Hallin 1994; Langer 1998; Manoff and Schudson 1986; Robinson and Levy 1986; Romano 1986; van Ginneken 1998

Alison Duguid University of Siena

World news

  • World news meant

  • “ a differentrelationshipbetweendiscourse and the audience and discourse and the event” (Montgomery)

  • Referencestotime and placechange

  • E.g. specificdayreference ‘early on Tuesday’ ratherthandeictic ‘yesterday’

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Like National News

  • Claimingobjectivity and neutralitybutwith

  • Global reach

  • Anti-parochial

  • Sensitivity

  • Butthesechannelshavebeenmuchcriticisedforbias, Western value system, cover up ofrealevents in a war, a differentkindofparochialism

Alison Duguid University of Siena

A response

  • New channels set up togive a differentperspective

  • Al Jazeera English

  • Russia Today

  • CCTV News

  • France 24 English

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Soft power

  • A vehicle for public and cultural diplomacy, or soft power, in world politics. - these channels appear to offer nation-states a means to project their voice, their policies and their interpretations of events in the global media – to assert and maintain a presence in the global Anglosphere.

Alison Duguid University of Siena

A senseofbelonging

  • A means to reach diasporic audiences - first generation migrants often sustain close attachments to their country of origin through satellite television, but as the mother tongue becomes hard to maintain for second and third generations, so new ways are being found to reach them and create a sense of diasporic nationhood and belonging across geographical distance.

Alison Duguid University of Siena

The linebetweendiplomacy and development

  • A tool for development - arguably, the line between diplomacy and development is becoming increasingly blurred in UK and US foreign policy. To what extent do transnational English language channels like Al Jazeera English and Press TV challenge UK/US foreign policy and development goals?

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Some questions

  • These questions will become more important in the coming years as these channels are used increasingly to shape world affairs.

  • Does the huge growth of channels mean that they are popular or that people are watching them? In their struggle for exposure, credibility and legitimacy, questions can also be raised about the independence of such channels from, and accountability to, home governments.

Alison Duguid University of Siena

A guaranteeofpower?

  • “Given that many of these English-language media channels are being funded by governments, we should be asking what these channels are for. Are they simply to attract audiences, or do governments expect to influence international affairs through TV stations? Given that France, Russia, Iran and China have all recently launched English-language TV stations, does this mean countries only feel they count as a ‘power’ if they have a voice alongside the BBC and CNN in the emerging ‘Anglosphere’?”

Alison Duguid University of Siena


  • Assad emails:

  • From leaked emails it was revealed that Assad’sfather-in-law gave advice from the UK during the government crackdown on protestors

  • Cardiologist told Bashar al-Assad how to “spin” the Syrian uprising, including rebuttal of apparent child torture footage

  • Guardian15 March 2012

Alison Duguid University of Siena

A project forAssad?

  • On 16 January this year, as international pressure grew on Assad to stand down and the UN secretary general, Ban Ki-moon, described the casualties as "unacceptable", Akhras urged Assad to launch an English language Syrian state news network "to enable us to address the world of our case in their own language and mentality". He told Assad it was "an extremely important project to be considered at the highest level".

Alison Duguid University of Siena

What are theyfor???


“All the news all the time”

“Your link to Asia

Alison Duguid University of Siena

New boys on the block

  • Al Jazeeramission statement: The network's stated objective is "to give voice to untold stories, promote debate, and challenge established perceptions.“

  • AJ : “reversing the northtosouth flow of information”

  • So you can hear the voice …. and the other voice

Alison Duguid University of Siena

France 24

  • France 24: France 24's journalists have signed a mission statement "to cover international news with a French perspective... and to carry the values of France throughout the world".

  • But the channel insists it is independent and will not just follow the government line.

  • "Our mission is to cover worldwide news with French eyes," said the channel's head, Alain de Pouzilhac.

  • France 24 intends to present a view of the news different from that of the leading Anglophone international news channels CNN International and BBC World.

  • France 24 wants to put more emphasis on debate, dialogue and the role of cultural difference.

Alison Duguid University of Siena


  • President Sarkozy announced on 8 January 2008 that he was in favour of reducing France 24's programming to French only.

  • In January 2012 AEF announced a merger between France 24 and Radio France International, a procedure finalised on 13 February 2012. Alain de Pouzilhac, president of AEF stated in Le Monde:

  • "We have just created a French audiovisual group of international dimensions, that aspires to be powerful and ambitious”

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Don't be so CNN!

  • China: A Chinese website accused CNN and western media in general of biased reporting against China, with the catch-phrase "Don't be so CNN" catching on in the Chinese mainstream as jokingly meaning "Don't be so biased". Pictures used by CNN are allegedly edited to have completely different meanings from the original ones.

Alison Duguid University of Siena

CCTV Missionstatement

CCTV: China’s contributiontogreaterdiversityand widerperspectivesin the global information flow.

The target audience isforeignersboth inside and outside China.

Alison Duguid University of Siena


  • CCTV News relies on foreigners as news presenters, some of whom have extensive experience, Jiang Hepinghas defended the policy of putting foreigners on air, arguing that “we feel international on-air personalities boost the credibility of CCTV News and befit its image as an international channel. In this regard, CCTV News will not restrict the origin of its employees and choose to build its unique identity through its programming.

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Al Jazeera

  • The New York Times stated in January 2011: "The protests rocking the Arab world this week have one thread uniting them: Al Jazeera, ... whose aggressive coverage has helped propel insurgent emotions from one capital to the next." The newspaper quoted Marc Lynch, a professor of Middle East Studies at George Washington University: "They did not cause these events, but it's almost impossible to imagine all this happening without Al Jazeera."[49]

  • With Al Jazeera's growing global outreach and influence, some scholars including Adel Iskandar have described the station as a transformation of the very definition of "alternative media."

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Even the secretaryofstate….

  • Hilary Clinton:

"viewership of Al Jazeera is going up in the United States because it’s real news. You may not agree with it, but you feel like you’re getting real news around the clock instead of a million commercials and—you know—arguments between talking heads and the kind of stuff that we do on our news which—you know—is not particularly informative to us, let alone foreigners."

Alison Duguid University of Siena

The information war

  • In 2011, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stated that the United States was "losing the information war" abroad to foreign channels like Russia Today, Al Jazeera, and China Central Television[37] and that they are supplanting the Voice of America.

  • She said "Al Jazeera has been the leader in that [they] are literally changing people’s minds and attitudes. And like it or hate it, it is really effective,” she said.[

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Editorial independence?

  • Al Jazeera is owned by the government of Qatar.[While Al Jazeera officials have stated that they are editorially independent from the government of Qatar,[this assertion has been disputed. In 2010, United states Department of State internal communications, released by Wikileaks as part of the 2010 diplomatic cables leak, claim that the Qatar government manipulates Al Jazeera coverage to suit political interests.[

  • In September 2012, The Guardian reported that Al Jazeera's editorial independence came into question when the channel's director of news, SalahNegm, stepped in at the last minute to order that a two minute video covering a UNdebateover the Syrian civil war include a speech by the leader of Qatar. Staff members protested that the speech was not the most important aspect of the debate, and that it was a repetition of previous calls for Arab intervention.

  • The Guardian also claimed in September 2012 that Qatar has taken steps in recent years to consolidate control of Al Jazeera English.[

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Russia Today

  • At the time of RT's founding, director Svetlana Mironyuk stated: "Unfortunately, at the level of mass consciousness in the West, Russia is associated with three words: communism, snow and poverty," and added "We would like to present a more complete picture of life in our country."

Alison Duguid University of Siena

RT designedintentions

  • When Vladimir Putin visited the new Russia Today broadcasting centre in June 2013 he recalled "When we designed this project back in 2005 we intended introducing another strong player on the international scene, a player that wouldn’t just provide an unbiased coverage of the events in Russia but also try, let me stress, I mean – try to break the Anglo-Saxon monopoly on the global information streams. And it seems to me that you’re [referring to RT editor-in-chief] succeeding in this job.

Alison Duguid University of Siena


  • I’d like to emphasise something of key importance. We never expected this to be a news agency or a channel that would defend the position of the Russian political line. We wanted to bring an absolutely independent news channel to the news arena. Certainly the channel is funded by the government, so it cannot help but reflect the Russian government’s official position on the events in our country and in the rest of the world one way or another. But I’d like to underline again that we never intended this channel, RT, as any kind of apologetics for the Russian political line, whether domestic or foreign."

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Broadcast talking

  • How do theseBroadcasters talk the talk and walk the walk?

  • Howis the pre-announced ‘attitude’ played out?

  • Comparative data

  • Methodologicalproblems: representativity and comparability

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Investigating World TV preparation

  • Form a groupoffourpersons

  • Assignoneof the channelstoeachperson (RT,F24,CCTV, AJ)

  • Start finding out asmuch information aboutyourchannelasyou can. Bring the information to the othermembersof the group and prepare a chart tohighlightmaindifferences.

  • Watch the news bulletinsforseveraldays.

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Action – gettingyour data

  • Plan a dayto record your news bulletinsfromallfourchannels

  • Download and record oneapproximatelyhalfhourbnewsbulletinforyourchannel. (makesure the othershavedone so for the sameday)

  • Make a contentslistfor the news bulletinwithtimings.

  • Transcribe the news

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Analysing and comparing

  • Choose a news item thatallfourchannelshave in common

  • Trytodescribeyourownchannel’s version (in termsofframing, focusing, realising, closing; in linguistic, visual, discursiveterms)

  • Compare transcriptions and descriptionswith the othermembersof the group

  • Be preparedtodiscuss the differences and comment on salientfeatures.

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Time and space

  • 3 days + 5 days

  • Approximatelysametime

  • Whocoverswhat

  • Coveringlocal

  • Covering global

  • Area news

Alison Duguid University of Siena

France 24

  • Cote d’Ivoire

  • Middle East

  • Burqa law

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Al Jazeera English

  • Middle East

  • Cote d’Ivoire

  • Burqa law

Alison Duguid University of Siena


  • Middle East

  • Cote d’Ivoire

Alison Duguid University of Siena


  • AJ with news about gas explosion in Beijingnotcovered in CCTV

  • China with news aboutFrencharrests in Pakistan notcoveredby France 24

  • France 24 with item aboutprotests in 12 cities in China notcoveredby CCTV

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Visuals and verbals

  • AJ has ‘in your face’ footage – veryclose up and more post production tweaking

  • CCTV has a lotoffootage in a splitscreenwhichdoesn’t match with the verbals

  • France 24 doesn’t presentitsreportersverbally – a banner doesit. Mostreports are done in voice over

  • Theyallusefootagefromeachother and from a varietyofsources

  • Acknowledgementsoftenomitted

  • NB The moneyfactor

Alison Duguid University of Siena

Attitudes in headlines

  • The ArabAwakening

  • (AJ’s headingtoall Middle East coverage)

  • Surprisingevaluations

  • ‘ a spitefulattack’

Alison Duguid University of Siena

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