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Worms and Mollusks. Chapter 27. Flatworms. Section 27-1. What is a flatworm?. Phylum Platyhelminthes No more than a few millimeters thick Have tissues and internal organ systems Have bilateral symmetry and cephalization

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Worms and mollusks

Worms and Mollusks

Chapter 27


Flatworms
Flatworms

Section 27-1


What is a flatworm
What is a flatworm?

  • Phylum Platyhelminthes

  • No more than a few millimeters thick

  • Have tissues and internal organ systems

  • Have bilateral symmetry and cephalization

  • Known as acoelomates (“without coelem,” which is a fluid filled body cavity)


Form and function in flatworms
Form and Function in Flatworms

  • Feeding

  • Digestive cavity with a single opening through which both food and wastes pass

  • Parasitic worms obtain nutrients from foods that have already been digested by their hosts


Form and function in flatworms1
Form and Function in Flatworms

  • Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion

  • Rely on diffusion to:

    • Transport oxygen and nutrients to internal tissues

    • Remove carbon dioxide and other wastes from their bodies

  • Have no gills or respiratory organs, heart, blood vessels, or blood

  • Some have flame cells – remove excess water and filter wastes from the body



Form and function in flatworms2
Form and Function in Flatworms

  • Response

  • A head encloses several ganglia (groups of nerve cells) that control the nervous system

  • Have eyespots that look like eyes, but are groups of cells that can detect changes in the amount of light in their environment


Form and function in flatworms3
Form and Function in Flatworms

  • Movement

  • Two means of movement:

    • Cilia to help glide through water

    • Muscle cells allow them to twist and turn


Form and function in flatworms4
Form and Function in Flatworms

  • Reproduction

  • Most are hermaphrodites that reproduce sexually

    • A hermaphrodite is an individual that has both male and female reproductive organs

  • Asexual reproduction takes place by fission, in which an organism splits in two


Groups of flatworms
Groups of Flatworms

  • Three main groups of Flatworms

    • Turbellarians

    • Flukes

    • Tapeworms

  • Most turbellarians are free-living

  • Most other flatworm species are parasites


Turbellarians
Turbellarians

  • Free-living flatworms

  • Live in marine or freshwater


Flukes
Flukes

  • Class Trematoda

  • Parasitic flatworms

  • Infect the internal organs of their host


Tapeworms
Tapeworms

  • Class Cestoda

  • Long, flat, parasitic worms

  • Adapted to life inside the intestines of their host

    • No digestive tract

    • Absorb already digested nutrients from host


Roundworms
Roundworms

Section 2


What is a roundworm
What is a Roundworm?

  • Phylum Nematoda

  • Slender, unsegmented worms with tapering ends

  • Range in size from microscopic to a meter

  • Most are free-living, inhabiting soil and water

  • Others are parasitic


What is a roundworm1
What is a Roundworm?

  • Have a pseudocoelom (“false coelom”)

  • Have a digestive tract with two openings – a mouth and an anus


Form and function in roundworms
Form and Function in Roundworms

  • Have specialized tissues and organ systems

  • Body systems of free-living roundworms are more complex than parasitic ones


Form and function in roundworms1
Form and Function in Roundworms

  • Feeding

    • Predators that use grasping mouthparts to catch and eat small animals

  • Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion

    • Exchange gases and excrete metabolic waste through their body walls

    • Depend on diffusion to carry nutrients and waste through their bodies


Form and function in roundworms2
Form and Function in Roundworms

  • Response

    • Simple nervous systems

    • Have several types of sense organs

  • Movement

    • Muscles extend the length of their bodies

  • Reproduction

    • Reproduce sexually, and most have separate sexes


Roundworms and human disease
Roundworms and Human Disease

  • Parasitic roundworms include:

    • Trichinosis-causing worms

    • Filarial worms

    • Ascarid worms

    • Hookworms


Trichinosis causing worms
Trichinosis-Causing Worms

  • Trichinosis – terrible disease caused by the roundworm Trichinella

  • Adult worms live and mate in the intestines of their hosts

  • Humans usually get the disease from eating undercooked pork


Filarial worms
Filarial Worms

  • Threadlike worms that live in blood of birds and mammals

  • Causes elephantiasis


Ascarid worms
Ascarid Worms

  • Serious parasite of vertebrate animals

  • Causes malnutrition in more than 1 billion people worldwide

  • Absorbs digested food from the host’s small intestine


Hookworms
Hookworms

  • 25% of people in the world are affected with hookworms

  • Live in host’s intestines

  • Feed on blood, causing weakness and poor growth


Annelids
Annelids

Section 27-3


What is an annelid
What is an Annelid?

  • Phylum Annelida

  • Worms with segmented bodies

    • Each segment is separated by a septum

  • Have a true coelom


Form and function in annelids
Form and Function in Annelids

  • Feeding and Digestion

    • Many get their food using a pharynx

      • Food moves from the pharynx, into the esophagus, the crop, the gizzard, and then to the intestine

    • Others obtain food by filter feeding

  • Circulation

    • Closed circulatory system – blood is contained within a network of blood vessels


Form and function in annelids1
Form and Function in Annelids

  • Respiration

    • Aquatic annelids often breath through gills

    • Land-dwelling annelids take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide through their moist skin

  • Excretion

    • Digestive wastes pass through the anus at the end of the digestive tract

    • Cellular waste is eliminated through nephridia (excretory organs)



Form and function in annelids3
Form and Function in Annelids

  • Response

    • Well developed nervous system consisting of a brain and several nerve cords

Brain

Ganglia


Form and function in annelids4
Form and Function in Annelids

  • Movement

    • Two groups of muscles that work together as part of a hydrostatic skeleton

  • Reproduction

    • Most reproduce sexually

      • Some have separate sexes, others are hermaphrodites


Groups of annelids
Groups of Annelids

  • Three classes of Annelids

    • Oligochaetes

    • Leeches

    • Polychaetes


Oligochaetes
Oligochaetes

  • Class Oligochaeta

  • Contains earthworms and their relatives

  • Streamlined bodies

  • Relatively few setae

  • Most live in soil or freshwater


Leeches
Leeches

  • Class Hirudinea

  • External parasites that suck the blood and body fluids of their host


Polychaetes
Polychaetes

  • Class Polychaeta

  • Contains sandworms, blood worms, and relatives

  • Marine annelids that have paired, paddlelike appendages tipped with setae (brushlike structures)


Ecology of annelids
Ecology of Annelids

  • Earthworms and many other annelids spend their lives burrowing through soil, aerating and mixing it

  • Earthworms help plant matter decompose

  • Earthworm castings are rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, micronutrients, and beneficial bacteria


Mollusks
Mollusks

Section 4


What is a mollusk
What is a Mollusk?

  • Soft-bodied animals

  • Usually have an internal or external shell

  • Free-swimming larval stage called a trocophore


Form and function in mollusks
Form and Function in Mollusks

  • True coeloms

  • Complex, interrelated organ systems


Form and function in mollusks1
Form and Function in Mollusks

Body Plan

  • Variation on four main parts:

    • Foot – takes many forms

    • Mantle – layer of tissue that covers the

      mollusk’s body

    • Shell – made by glands in the mantle

    • Visceral mass – consists of internal organs


Form and function in mollusks2
Form and Function in Mollusks

Feeding

  • Can be herbivores, carnivores, filter feeders, detritivores, or parasites

  • Snails and slugs feed using a tongue-shaped structure called a radula


Form and function in mollusks3
Form and Function in Mollusks

Feeding

  • Clams, oysters, and scallops use gills

  • Food enters through a siphon – tubelike structure through which water enters and leaves the body

Excurrent siphon

Incurrent siphon


Form and function in mollusks4
Form and Function in Mollusks

Respiration

  • Aquatic mollusks breathe using gills inside their mantle cavity

  • Land snails and slugs respire through the moist surface of their skin

Gills


Form and function in mollusks5
Form and Function in Mollusks

Circulation

  • Some have open circulatory systems – works well for slow-moving mollusks (snails and clams)

  • Others have closed circulatory systems – works best for fast moving mollusks (octopi and squid)

Heart


Form and function in mollusks6
Form and Function in Mollusks

Excretion

  • Nephridia remove wastes from the blood and release it outside the body

Nephridium


Form and function in mollusks7
Form and Function in Mollusks

Response

  • Two-shelled mollusks have simple nervous systems

  • Octopi and relatives have the most highly developed nervous systems of all invertebrates

  • Octopus opening a jar


Form and function in mollusks8
Form and Function in Mollusks

Movement

  • Move in a variety of ways

  • Snails secrete mucus and move over surfaces using the foot

  • Octopi use a form a jet propulsion

Reproduction

  • Reproduce in a variety of ways

  • Snails and two-shelled mollusks: external fertilization (sexually)

  • Tentacled mollusks and some snails: internal fertilization (sexually)


Groups of mollusks
Groups of Mollusks

  • Three major classes:

    • Gastropods

    • Bivalves

    • Cephalopods


Gastropods
Gastropods

  • Class Gastropoda

  • Shell-less or single-shelled

  • Move using muscular foot on ventral side

  • Includes: pond snails, land slugs, sea butterflies, sea hares, limpets, and nudibranchs


Bivalves
Bivalves

  • Class Bivalvia

  • Have two shells held together by one or two powerful muscles

  • Include: clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops


Cephalopods
Cephalopods

  • Class Cephalopoda

  • Soft-bodied

  • Head is attached to a single foot

  • Foot is divided into tentacles or arms

  • Includes: octopi, squids, cuttlefishes, and nautiluses


Ecology of mollusks
Ecology of Mollusks

  • Mollusks play many different roles in living systems:

    • Feed on plants

    • Prey on animals

    • Filter algae out of the water

    • Eat detritus

  • Some mollusks are hosts to symbiotic algae or to parasites; others are themselves parasites

  • Mollusks are food for many organisms


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