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CHAPTER 11. IMPLEMENTING STRATEGY: CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP. Screen graphics created by: Jana F. Kuzmicki, PhD, Indiana University Southeast. Building a Strategy-Supportive Corporate Culture Where Does Corporate Culture Come From? Power of Culture Types of Cultures

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Implementing strategy culture and leadership

CHAPTER 11

IMPLEMENTING STRATEGY: CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP

Screen graphics created by:

Jana F. Kuzmicki, PhD, Indiana University Southeast


Chapter outline

Building a Strategy-Supportive Corporate Culture

Where Does Corporate Culture Come From?

Power of Culture

Types of Cultures

Creating a Fit Between Strategy and Culture

Establishing Ethical Standards and Values

Building a Spirit of High Performance

Exerting Strategic Leadership

MBWA

Fostering a Strategy-Supportive Culture

Keeping Internal Organization Innovative

Dealing With Company Politics

Enforcing Ethical Behavior

Making Corrective Adjustments

Chapter Outline


What makes up a company s culture
What Makes Up aCompany’s Culture?

  • Beliefs about how business ought to be conducted

  • Values and principles of management

  • Patterns of “how we do things around here”

  • Oft-told stories illustrating company’s values

  • Taboos and political don’ts

  • Traditions

  • Ethical standards


Where does corporate culture come from
Where Does CorporateCulture Come From?

  • Founder or early leader

  • Influential individual or work group

  • Policies, vision, or strategies

  • Traditions, supervisory practices, employee attitudes

  • Organizational politics

  • Relationships with stakeholders

  • Internal sociological forces


How is culture sustained
How Is Culture Sustained?

  • Continuity of leadership

  • Select new employees based on how well their personalities “fit”

  • Systematic indoctrination of new employees

  • Senior employees’ reinforcement of core values

  • Story-telling of company legends

  • Ceremonies honoring employees who display cultural ideals

  • Visibly rewarding those who follow cultural norms


The power of culture
The Power of Culture

  • Culture can contribute to -- or hinder -- successful strategy execution

  • Requirements for successful strategy execution may -- or may not -- be compatible with culture

  • Aclose match between culture and strategy promotes effective strategy execution


Why culture matters the benefits of a good culture strategy fit
Why Culture Matters: The Benefitsof a Good Culture-Strategy Fit

  • Strategy-supportive cultures

    • Shape the mood and temperament of the work force--positively affecting organizational energy, work habits, and operating practices

    • Provide standards, values, informal rules and peer pressures that nurture and motivate people to do their jobs in ways that promote good strategy execution

    • Strengthen employeeidentification with the company, its performance targets, and strategy


Why culture matters the benefits of a good culture strategy fit cont

Can

Do!

Why Culture Matters: The Benefitsof a Good Culture-Strategy Fit (cont.)

  • Strategy-supportive cultures

    • Stimulate people to take on the challenge of realizing the company’s vision, do their jobs competently and with enthusiasm, and collaborate with others to execute the strategy

    • Optimal condition:A work environment that

    • Promotes can do attitudes

    • Accepts change

    • Breeds needed capabilities


Types of corporate cultures

Strong vs. Weak Cultures

Low-Performance Cultures

Adaptive Cultures

Types of Corporate Cultures


Characteristics of strong culture companies
Characteristics ofStrong Culture Companies

  • Conduct business according to a clear, widely-understood philosophy

  • Management spends considerable time spent communicating and reinforcing values

  • Values widely shared and deeply rooted

  • Often have a values statement

  • Careful screening/selection of new employees to be sure they will “fit in”

  • Visible rewards for those following norms; penalties for those who don’t


How does a culture come to be strong

Values

Customers

Employees

Shareholders

How Does a Culture Come to Be Strong?

  • Leader who establishes values consistent with

    • Customer needs

    • Competitive conditions

    • Strategic requirements

  • A deep, abiding commitment to espoused values and business philosophy

    • Practicing what is preached!!

  • Genuine concern for well-being of

    • Customers

    • Employees

    • Shareholders


Hallmarks of adaptive cultures
Hallmarks of Adaptive Cultures

  • Introduction of new strategies to achieve superior performance

  • Strategic agility and fast response to new conditions

  • Risk-taking, experimentation, and innovation to satisfy stakeholders

  • Proactive approaches to implement workable solutions

  • Entrepreneurship encouraged and rewarded

  • Top managers exhibit genuine concern for customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers


Creating a strategy supportive cultural fit
Creating a Strategy - Supportive Cultural Fit

STEP 1

Diagnose which facets of present culture are strategy-supportive and which are not

STEP 2

Talk openly about those aspects of present culture that need to be changed

STEP 3

Follow with swift, visible actions -- some

substantive and some symbolic


Symbolic culture changing actions
Symbolic Culture-Changing Actions

  • Emphasize frugality

  • Eliminate executive perks

  • Require executives to spend time talking with customers

  • Alter practices identified as cultural hindrances

  • Visible awards to honor heroes

  • Ceremonial events to praise people and teams who “get with the program”


Substantive culture changing actions
Substantive Culture-Changing Actions

  • Benchmarking and best practices

  • Set world-class performance targets

  • Bring in new blood, replacing traditional managers

  • Shake up the organizational structure

  • Change reward structure

  • Increase commitment to employee training

  • Reallocate budget, downsizing and upsizing


Establishing ethical values
Establishing Ethical Values

  • A culture based on ethical principles is vital to long-term strategic success

  • Ethics programs make ethical conduct a way of life

  • Approaches to establishing ethical standards

    • Word-of-mouth indoctrination and tradition

    • Written codes of ethics

Our ethics

program

consists of . . .


Topics covered in value statements and codes of ethics

Topics in Value Statements

Customer importance

Commitment to quality

Commitment to innovation

Respect for individual employee

Importance of honesty

Duty to stockholders

Duty to suppliers

Corporate citizenship

Protecting the environment

Topics in Codes of Ethics

Honesty observing the law

Conflicts of interest

Fairness in marketing practices

Using inside information

Supplier relations

Corrupt practices

Acquiring information

Political activities

Use of company assets

Proprietary information

Pricing, contracting, & billing

Topics Covered in Value Statements and Codes of Ethics


Instilling values and ethics in the culture
Instilling Values and Ethics in the Culture

  • Incorporate values statement and ethics code in employee training programs

  • Screen out applicants who do not exhibit compatible character traits

  • Communicate the vales and ethics code to all employees

  • Management involvement and oversight

  • Strong endorsement by CEO

  • Word-of-mouth indoctrination


Building a spirit of high performance into the culture
Building a Spirit of HighPerformance Into the Culture

  • Emphasize achievement and excellence

  • Promote a results-oriented culture

  • Pursue practices to inspire people to excel

    Desired outcome:

    • Produce extraordinary results with ordinary people


Approaches to building a spirit of high performance
Approaches to Building aSpirit of High Performance

  • Treat employees with dignity and respect

  • Train each employee thoroughly

  • Encourage employees to use initiative

  • Set clear performance standards

  • Use rewards and punishment to enforce high performance standards

  • Hold managers responsible for employee development

  • Grant employees autonomy to contribute

  • Make champions out of people who excel


Six roles of the strategy implementer
Six Roles of theStrategy Implementer

1. Stay on top of what’s happening

2. Promote a culture energizing organization to accomplish strategy

3. Keep firm responsive to changing conditions

4. Build consensus and deal with politics of crafting and implementing strategy

5. Enforce ethical standards

6. Take corrective actions to improve overall strategic performance


Leader s role in matching culture and strategy
Leader’s Role in MatchingCulture and Strategy

  • Create events where all managers must listen to

    • Angry customers

    • Dissatisfied stockholders

    • Alienated employees

  • Energize employees to make new strategy happen

  • Repeat desired cultural values again and again

  • Reward people exhibiting desired cultural norms


Leader s role in empowering champions
Leader’s Role inEmpowering Champions

  • Encourage people to be creative and imaginative

  • Tolerate mavericks with creative ideas

  • Promote lots of tries and be willing to accept failures -- every idea won’t pan out

  • Use all kinds of organizational means to support experimentation (teams, task forces, “skunkworks” and individual champions)

  • See that rewards for successful champions are large and visible


Leader s role in developing new capabilities
Leader’s Role inDeveloping New Capabilities

  • Responding to changes requires top management intervention to establish new

    • Organizational capabilities

    • Resource strengths and competencies

  • Senior managers must lead the effort because

    • Competencies reside in combined efforts, requiring integration

    • Clout is needed to enforce necessary networking and cooperation


Political tactics of successful executives

Let weakly supported ideas die via inaction

Establish hurdles for strongly supported ideas that shouldn’t be opposed

Keep low profile on unacceptable ideas by getting subordinates to say no

Let most negative decisions come from group consensus

Lead the strategy but don’t dictate it

Stay alert to symbolic impact of one’s actions

Ensure all major power bases have access to top managers

Inject new views when considering major changes

Minimize political exposure on highly controversial issues

Political Tactics ofSuccessful Executives


Leader s role in enforcing ethical behavior
Leader’s Role inEnforcing Ethical Behavior

  • Set an excellent ethical example

  • Provide training to employees about what is ethical and what isn’t

  • Reiterate unequivocal support of ethics code

  • Remove people from key positions if found guilty of a violation

  • Reprimand people lax in monitoring ethical compliance


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