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Topic 7 Cont’d. Transcription and Translation. Transcription Basics. DNA vs. RNA. Transcription Basics cont’d. Directionality: read 3’-5’; made 5’-3’ Promoter & TATA boxes Nucleoside triphosphates Contains the sense strand and antisense strand

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topic 7 cont d

Topic 7 Cont’d

Transcription and Translation

transcription basics cont d
Transcription Basics cont’d
  • Directionality: read 3’-5’; made 5’-3’
  • Promoter & TATA boxes
  • Nucleoside triphosphates
  • Contains the sense strand and antisense strand
  • Sense strand = always 5’-3’ and is the same as the mRNA that is produced except T for U
  • Antisense strand = always 3’-5’ and is the strand that forms the template and is transcribed.
animation sites
Animation sites
  • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/molgenetics/transcription.swf
  • http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/transcription/first.htm
translation
Translation

The process of polypeptide/protein production using mRNA as a guide

Requires:

mRNA transcript

tRNA

tRNA activating enzymes

ribosomes

genetic code…..

the genetic code cont d
The Genetic Code cont’d
  • It’s a triplet code (codon) = 3 bases code for 1 amino acid
  • There are 64 different codons
  • Duplication = degeneracy = possible for 2 or more codons to code for the same amino acid
  • Code is essential universal (find me 2 exceptions by next class for 1 point e.c. each)
slide10
tRNA
  • All tRNAs have base-paired ds sections that become loops
  • Triplet bases complementary to mRNA codons…called anticodons
  • A 3’-5’ CCA terminal end for amino acid attachment
  • The above permit 3 distinct binding attachment of the tRNA to the ribosome
trna a s f example
tRNA a S = F example
  • The base sequence of tRNa molecules vary = some variable features in its structure
  • An extra small loop is sometimes present
  • The bp sections are sometimes helical
  • Results in:
  • A distinctive 3-d shape
  • Distinctive chemical properties
  • ALLOWS THE CORRECT AA TO BE ATTACHED TO THE 3’ END BY A tRNA ACTIVATING ENZYME (aminoacyl-tRNA sythetase)
  • There are 20 different tRNA activating enzymes – one for each of the 20 diff. AA
ribosome basics
Ribosome Basics
  • Composed of protein and rRNA
  • Consist of 2 subunits (small and large)
  • Possess 3 binding sites for tRNA (2 tRNAs can bind at the same time)
  • Possess a binding site for mRNA
  • Free vs. Bound (RER)
  • 80S in Euks vs. 70S in Proks & Euk. organelles
polysomes movie time
Polysomes & Movie Time
  • http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/translation/movie.htm
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