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Neutrino Factory R&D in Europe. or the art to talk for half an hour about nothing…. Helmut D. Haseroth CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. Then came (BIG surprise?) the LHC catastrophy…. Huge reduction in accelerator R&D. Organisation of European R&D:

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Neutrino factory r d in europe

Neutrino Factory R&D in Europe

or the art to talk for half an hour about nothing…

Helmut D. Haseroth

CERN, Geneva, Switzerland

NuFact03


Then came (BIG surprise?) the LHC catastrophy…

Huge reduction in accelerator R&D

Organisation of European R&D:

Previously the CERN Neutrino Factory Working Group was quite active together with other European labs.

CLIC cut drastically (to around 4 MCHF)

SPL down to around 200 k€

Neutrino Activity down to a bit of travel money

(That‘s why I am still here…)

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There are however a few positive points

We have some (positive) impact from directors of big European labs with the intention to contribute towards neutrino R&D in spite of CERN‘s reduction!

We have a European Muon Concertation and Oversight Group (EMCOG)

FIRST SET OF BASIC GOALS

The long-term goal is to have a Conceptual Design Report for a European Neutrino Factory Complex by the time of LHC start-up, so that, by that date, this would be a valid option for the future of CERN.

An earlier construction for the proton driver (SPL + accumulator & compressor rings) is conceivable and, of course, highly desirable. The SPL, targetry and horn R&D have therefore to be given the highest priority.

There are, however, a few positive points:

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EMCOG members European labs with the intention to contribute towards neutrino R&D in spite of CERN‘s reduction!

Pascal Debut

Rob Edgecock

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Chair: Helmut D. Haseroth European labs with the intention to contribute towards neutrino R&D in spite of CERN‘s reduction!

Scientific Secretary: Rob Edgecock

Sub-working groups with conveners:

Proton Driver:

SPL: Pascal Debu, Roland Garoby

Proton Rings: Chris Prior

Targetry: Roger Bennett

Collection: Jean-Eric Campagne

Frontend: Rob Edgecck

Muon Acceleration + Decay Ring: Francois Meot

Charged me to create European working group called: ENG (European Neutrino Group).

Plenary meetings during Muon Weeks

One person still from CERN…

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Muon weeks

MUON Weeks: Organized by V. Palladino: European labs with the intention to contribute towards neutrino R&D in spite of CERN‘s reduction!

3/year at different locations in Europe at participating labs. Covers physics and machine aspects.

Resources at all European labs (manpower and money) very limited => ask the EU for support!

No hope in the past for support from EU neither for high energy physics nor for accelerators, especially not for CERN.

MUON Weeks

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But now there is fp6 framework program 6 of the european union

of CCLRC, CERN, DAPNIA/CEA, DESY, LNF, Orsay/IN2P3, and PSI in consultation with ECFA

and ECFA is encouraged to ask for EU support.

Another committee of lab directors

…but now there is FP6 (framework program 6) of the European Union

have decided to form a European Steering Group on Accelerator R&D (ESGARD)

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NuFact03 in consultation with ECFA


  • Two in consultation with ECFA Contact Groups (CG) issued from ESGARD have been set up to bidding preparation, one of electron-positron linear colliders and one on super proton accelerators and neutrino beams. These CGs will create Working Groups (WG) with the people of the community involved in the relevant activities. They also maintain close contact with existing committees, boards and teams. The mandate of the CGs is to:

    • To act as liaison between ESGARD and the community involved in accelerator studies related to the selected theme.

    • To inform the relevant community of the proposals being developed on accelerator R&D for FP6 and form a Working Group to :

      • Establish a proposal for Networking Activities (NA) related to each theme,

      • Develop proposals for Joint Research Projects (JRP),

      • Explore whether Transnational Access (TA) as defined by the EU commission is applicable to the accelerator community and, if so, make a proposal,

    • Together with the WG and in consultation with ESGARD, propose the names of the coordinators for the different activities (NA, TA and JRP).

    • Investigate with the WG whether proposals for Design Studies (DS) and/or Construction of New Infrastructures (CNI) as defined by the EU commission is applicable and identify their scope.

    • Contact Group 1 on e+e- Linear Colliders : A. Antonelli, G. Guignard, F. Richard, S. Smith and D. Trines

    • Contact Group 2 on super proton-accelerators and neutrino beams : R. Aleksan, H. Haseroth, P. Norton and A. Wrulich

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  • The R&D on accelerators for high energy physics is organised around three main future world-wide projects:

    • Electron-positron linear colliders with energies ranging between 500 and 3000 GeV in the centre-of-mass system, using the technology of superconductive high gradient accelerator structures recently developed by the TESLA international collaboration, and aiming at exploiting as well the two-beam technique for obtaining ultra-high gradients at room temperature developed by the CLIC international collaboration.

    • Facilities providing intense neutrino beams (see for example NUFACT, using both improvements to the existing methods based on intense proton beams, and the more novel techniques based on radioactive ion or muon beams.

    • Facilities providing proton beams with ultra-high intensities and energies, aiming at very large hadron colliders, and covering as well luminosity and energy upgrades of the LHC at CERN.

Neutrino Factories are part of ESGARD activities

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From the minutes of the around three main future world-wide projects:Restricted ECFA, November 29, 2002

The chairman thanked R.Aleksan and ESGARD for the enormous amount of work they have already done as well as M.Spiro who has set the project going (Applause). RECFA fully supports the steps taken by ESGARD in building up the bids and will closely follow its work

Statement made in the Chairman's Summary of Conclusions of the December 2002 SPC meeting at CERN

The SPC strongly supported the effort to co-ordinate the accelerator R&D at the European level through the promotion of the ESGARD initiative to get support of the European Union.

From the minutes of the Restricted ECFA, March 31, 2003

RECFA was impressed by the huge amount of work done by ESGARD and congratulated them for having so successfully built the proposal on accelerator R&D to the 6th EU Framework Programme. This proposal includes 6 Joint Research Projects and 3 Networks Activities, which are all considered with high priority by RECFA

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Vittorio Palladino around three main future world-wide projects:

Not a lot of money for these activities. Typically 1 to 1.5 M€ for 5 years!

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A possible proton driver for a Neutrino Factory around three main future world-wide projects:

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CERN Scheme around three main future world-wide projects:

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Spl basics
SPL basics around three main future world-wide projects:

Study group since 1999 

design of a Superconducting Proton Linac (H-, 2.2 GeV).

 higher brightness beams into the PS for LHC

 intense beams (4 MW) for neutrino and

radioactive ion physics

CERN 2000-012

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Spl design parameters
SPL design parameters around three main future world-wide projects:

For neutrino physics, it has

to be compressed with an

Accumulator and a

Compressor ring into

140 bunches, 3 ns long,

forming a burst of 3.3 ms

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A large inventory of LEP RF equipment is available around three main future world-wide projects:

(SC cavities, cryostats, klystrons, waveguides, circulators, etc.)

which can drastically reduce the cost of construction

LEP cavity modules in storage

Stored LEP klystrons

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Spl lay out
SPL lay-out around three main future world-wide projects:

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Spl cross section
SPL cross section around three main future world-wide projects:

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Accumulator and compressor rings pdac
Accumulator and Compressor Rings (“PDAC”) around three main future world-wide projects:

2 synchrotron rings

in the ex-ISR tunnel

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Roadmap 1 3 mev injector
Roadmap (1): 3 MeV injector around three main future world-wide projects:

1) 3 MeV pre-injector 2006 at CERN

On-going collaboration with CEA (Saclay-F) and CNRS (Orsay-F) to build, test and install at CERN a 3 MeV pre-injector based on the “IPHI” RFQ (Injecteur de Protons de Haute Intensité)

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Roadmap 2 linac4
Roadmap (2): Linac4 around three main future world-wide projects:

Idea: Take only the room temperature part of the SPL (120 MeV) and install it in the PS South Hall, to inject H- into the PSBooster

 > twice the number of protons/pulse in the PSB (5 1013)

120 MeV, 80m, 16 LEP klystrons

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Linac4 layout in south hall
Linac4 layout in South Hall around three main future world-wide projects:

to inflector & PSB

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Hippi
HIPPI around three main future world-wide projects:

In the frame of the CARE Initiative (ESGARD), Joint Research Activity called HIPPI (High Intensity Pulsed proton Injector) (total 6 JRA’s)

8 European Laboratories join efforts for a common R&D on high intensity linacs with energy in the range 3-200 MeV (CEA, CERN, ISN-Grenoble, GSI, IAP-Frankfurt, FZ Juelich, RAL, INFN-Mi) to prepare the upgrade of the proton accelerator facilities at CERN, GSI, RAL

4 Work Packages: 1. Normal-conducting accelerating structures

2. Superconducting accelerating structures

3. Beam chopping

4. Beam dynamics

Total investment of some 15 M€ (including lab salaries), request to EU for a contribution of 4 M€over 5 years (2004-08)

For CERN, this means 130 k€/yr (…).

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R d topics ccdtl
R&D Topics - CCDTL around three main future world-wide projects:

CCDTL = Cell Coupled Drift Tube Linac,

a simpler and cheaper alternative to DTL for energy > 40 MeV

CCDTL prototype

coupling cell

quadrupole

DTL-like accelerating cell

(2 or 3 drift tubes)

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Roadmap 3 spl
Roadmap (3): SPL … around three main future world-wide projects:

  • LEP RF cavities are getting older...

  • New technology can provide better performance (=gradient!)

  • More EU-wide interest on 700 MHz frequency, bulk Nb

  • Consequences:

    • Slowly relax the option on the LEP cavities

    • Consider 700 MHz already for the 100-150 MeV at Linac4.

    • Start market survey for 700 MHz klystrons

    • R&D options must be valid for both frequencies

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Preliminary Layout of Neutrino Factory around three main future world-wide projects:

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European scenarios
European Scenarios around three main future world-wide projects:

  • SPL + accumulator and compressor rings

  • 5 GeV, 50 Hz synchrotron-based system

  • 15 GeV, 25 Hz synchrotron-based system

  • 30 GeV, 8 Hz slow cycling synchrotron

  • 8 GeV, 16.67 Hz rapid cycling synchrotron for ISIS/Fermilab, plus upgrades

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Cern pdac bunch compression
CERN PDAC: Bunch Compression around three main future world-wide projects:

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Ral 5 gev proton driver

180 MeV H around three main future world-wide projects:- Linac

Collimation

Momentum Ramping

Injection

2 bunches of

2.5 1013 protons

Two 1.2 GeV, 50 Hz Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons

4 bunches of

2.5 1013 protons

Two 5 GeV, 25 Hz Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons

RAL 5 GeV Proton Driver

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Isis mw upgrades and possible use as a nf test bed
ISIS MW Upgrades and possible use as a NF test bed around three main future world-wide projects:

  • 800 MeV,160 kW, 50 Hz, spallation neutron source

  • Current upgrade to 240 kW with new ion source, RFQ and dual harmonic RF accelerating system

NuFact03


Stage 1 upgrade to 1mw neutrons
Stage 1: upgrade to 1MW neutrons around three main future world-wide projects:

  • Addition of a new synchrotron to increase beam energy to 3 GeV at 50 Hz

  • Operated at 16.67 Hz, with every third ISIS pulse, could take beam to 8 GeV and be used as a test bed for 1 ns bunch compression

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Stage 2 upgrade to 4 5 mw
Stage 2: Upgrade to 4-5 MW around three main future world-wide projects:

  • Design and build new linac and two new booster synchrotrons with radius 39 m, operating at 50 Hz to 1.6 GeV (h=3)

  • Build a second 78 m racetrack

  • Operate the two racetracks at 25Hz on alternate cycles

  • 2MW beam power in each rings

    • 4MW neutron source

    • 2MW to neutron target

      + 2MW to pion target

    • 4MW to pion target

180 MeV Linac

39m radius

78m radius

NuFact03


Current Status around three main future world-wide projects:

CERN have had considerable success with studies of mercury jets (with BNL), including within solenoidal fields.

CERN are are also studying granular targets.

PSI are building a liquid metal target. They are involved with the US in liquid metal targets for high power spallation sources.

RAL has done preliminary tests on shock waves in hot tantalum using electron beams.

CERNISOLDE have experience of the problems of radioactivity and of shock waves. They have a laboratory suitable for handling active materials and molten metals - mercury.

CERN, PSI (not pulsed) and RAL have facilities providing high power proton beams. Also in the US at Los Alamos, Brookhaven and FNAL.

Target Studies

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  • The Liquid Metal (Mercury) Jet around three main future world-wide projects:

  • The jet is constantly being reformed for every pulse. The jet becomes “heated” by the beam and disperses to hit the walls

  • No Problems with:

  • Radiation Damage

  • Shock Damage

  • Power dissipation

  • Possible Problems with:

  • Jet formation

  • Interaction with the magnetic field

  • Interaction of the mercury with other equipment

  • Tests to date indicate that the jet is viable

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Hg-jet p-converter target with a pion focusing horn around three main future world-wide projects:

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Targetry
Targetry around three main future world-wide projects:

Many difficulties: enormous power density lifetime problems pion capture

Replace target between bunches:

Liquid mercury jet or rotating solid target

Stationary target:

Proposed rotating tantalum target ring

Densham

Sievers

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Granular Target around three main future world-wide projects:

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  • A Water Cooled Cu-Ni Rotating Band Target (BNL and FNAL, Bruce King)

  • A Radiation Cooled Rotating Toroid, (RAL)

  • TOROID OPERATES AT 2000-2500 K

  • RADIATION COOLED

  • ROTATES IN A VACUUM

  • VACUUM CHAMBER WALLS WATER COOLED

  • NO WINDOWS

  • SHOCK? Pbar target OK. Tests using electron beam simulation indicate no problem.

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V Bruce King

No threading solenoid

V = Lf

R not fixed

Individual Targets Levitated

Reservoir for targets to collect and cool

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  • Advantages of Solid Target Bruce King

  • No windows

  • Cooling in the walls

  • Simple concept

  • Disadvantages

  • Large rotating toroid or individual targets

  • Problems if toroid breaks

  • Thermal shock - toroid breaks

  • Very radioactive

NuFact03


Tests by RAL with electron beams show that tantalum foils can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000.

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Collector can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

1. Solenoid, 10-20 Tesla

US consider they have a long life (>1 year)

design

2. Horn

Problems with:

Heat dissipation, Radiation damage, Stress

Possible 6 week life

Studies will continue

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Double horn concept
Double horn concept can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

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Horn prototype ready for tests
Horn prototype ready for tests can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

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Acoustic frequency meas
Acoustic frequency meas. can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

Horn eigenfrequencies from horn “sound”

dB

Hz

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What we planned to do
What we planned to do can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

  • First “inner” horn 1:1 prototype

  • Power supply for Test One: 30 kA and 1 Hz, pulse 100 ms long

    • First mechanical measurements

    • Test of numerical results for vibration

    • Test of cooling system

  • Test Two: 100 kA and 0.5 Hz, 100 ms long

    • test of this power supply during last weeks

  • Last test: 300 kA and 50 Hz

Unknown schedule

Goal: Horn Life-Time 6 weeks (2*108 pulses)

NuFact03


NuFact03 can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000


Hg jet system
Hg-jet system can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

  • Power absorbed in Hg-jet 1 MW

  • Operating pressure 100 Bar

  • Flow rate 2 t/m

  • Jet speed 30 m/s

  • Jet diameter 10 mm

  • Temperature- Inlet to target 30° C- Exit from target 100° C

  • Total Hg inventory 10 t

  • Pump power 50 kW

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If you do not like this
If you do not like this… can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

Try funneling!

B. Autin, F. Meot, A. Verdier

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What are the problems
What are the problems? can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

  • Proton beam power: 4 MW

  • Target to cope with high power(must be a high Z target because of the modest proton energy)

  • Horn to be pulsed at: 50 Hz(Linac frequency)

  • It would be much simpler if we had only 1 MW and e.g. 12.5 Hz

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How does it work

Why a funneling system? can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

How does it work?

  • No exotic and expensive technology.

  • Lifetime in excess of one year.

  • Evolutionary design.

  • The proton beam is switched to 4 targets in sequence.

  • Each of the 4 pion lines contains an integrated system of target and magnetic horn.

  • The funnel is made of large aperture magnets with quadrupolar and pulsed dipolar coils.

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Funneling step by step
Funneling step by step can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

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Horn parameters
Horn Parameters can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

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Target dynamics
Target dynamics can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

  • High repetition frequency f reduces instantaneous energy deposited W at given power P: W = P/f .

  • Long pulse heats the spheres adiabatically: no shock.

    Without funneling

    With funneling

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Polarities
Polarities can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

Scheme 1: AC quadrupolesScheme 2: DC quadrupoles

Good transmission. Reduced transmission (2/3).

Complicated power supplies due Conventional power supplies.

to high stored magnetic energy.

NuFact03


Muon production
Muon production can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

  • Y = Nm/Npversus longitudinal emittance for two transverse admittances:

    • et = 1p cm (no cooling)

    • et = 4p cm (cooling)

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Introduction
Introduction can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

Frontend

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Cern baseline frontend

80 MHz can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

Decay

Rotation

Cooling I

Acceleration I

Acceleration II

Length [m]

15

8

90

» 10

» 450

Diameter [cm]

40

40

40

30

20

B-field [T]

4

4

4

4

quads

Frequency [MHz]

80

80

80

80-200

Gradient [MV/m]

4

4

4

4-10

Kin Energy [MeV]

200

200

300

2000

CERN Baseline Frontend

Replaced with an all 88MHz frontend  eliminates 44MHz cavities

Same performance as 44/88MHz channel

target and horn:

as before

15 m decay channel

cooling (6.4 m/cell)

7.2 m phase rotation

NuFact03


Frontends without cooling
Frontends without Cooling can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

Grahame Rees et al

Pion-muon decay channel

88 MHz muon linac

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Frontends without cooling1

Solenoid can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

channel

Es=190MeV

Solenoid

channel

Es=190MeV

RF phase

rotation

channel

Es=190MeV

Inverse

rotation

channel

Es=190MeV

Linac

Es=400MeV

(Transmission

=77%)

Linac

Es=400MeV

Frontends without Cooling

Transmission comparable to 44/88MHz scheme

NuFact03


Ag phase rotation
AG Phase Rotation can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

Jaroslaw Pasternak et al

  • Extend AG structure to phase rotation: - 8 triplet FODO cells matched to decay channel

  • Add magnetic compression chicane: - 2 periods, each 3 FODO cells

1.8x increase

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Rings
Rings can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

Grahame Rees et al

S = solenoid, A = absorber, 36 cavities in blocks of 3

  • Hybrid ring, using solenoids and dipoles

  • 44m circumference: 18m straights, 4m bends

  • 4m sections for injection and extraction

  • Initial results looking promising

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Working Group of F. Meot / CEA - DAPNIA can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

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Working Group of F. Meot / CEA - DAPNIA can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

Design studies - Plans for the future

a full design of a single- or double-RLA,

a full design of an FFAG ring - 6D tracking, DA, etc.

polytron scheme ?

converge on, finalise muSR design

in all cases, perform tracking simulations end to end

need develop simulation (including tracking) tools

"These acceleration systems are the largest cost items in the system" [DN,

Acceleration for the mu-storage ring neutrino-source]

prime goal : reduce costs

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Muon Colliders can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

Some time ago regarded by some people as science fiction, it must be noted that the advances in cooling theory and technology are so impressive as to consider this type of machine as a real possibility in the future.

High Energy Frontier…

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Possible step 0: Neutrino SUPERBEAM can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

300 MeV n m Neutrinos

small contamination from ne (no K at 2 GeV!)

Fréjus underground lab.

A large underground water Cerenkov (400 kton)

UNO/HyperK is best choice

also : proton decay search, supernovae events solar and atmospheric neutrinos.

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Design studies (preliminary thoughts) can withstand at least 200000 pulses and have lasted for 1000000

NUFACT (superbeam/neutrino factory)

collection, horn

4 MW target station

proton driver

muon acceleration and storage

+ proton/H- driver

nuclear-synergy group

Cooling

NA : BENE

Large cavern and UNO

EURISOL

+betabeam acceleration to g = 70 (CERN)

Driver

isol production of

rare ions

Mass separator

Post-accelerator

5 MW target

Scientific instrumentation

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Many thanks to my European colleagues for their help to prepare this talk, in particular to:

R. Aleksan

R. Garoby

Ch. Prior

R. Bennett

S. Gilardoni

B. Autin

R. Edgecock

F. Méot

M. Lindroos

and many others…

NuFact03


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