Making a color magnitude diagram for globular cluster omega centauri
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Making a Color-Magnitude Diagram for Globular Cluster Omega Centauri. Jay Anderson, STScI. 1. This is the Early-Release Image of Omega Centauri, taken by WFC3/UVIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). http://hubblesite.org/gallery/wallpaper/pr2009025q/. 2.

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Making a color magnitude diagram for globular cluster omega centauri
Making a Color-MagnitudeDiagram for Globular Cluster Omega Centauri

Jay Anderson,

STScI

1


This is the Early-Release Image of Omega Centauri, taken by WFC3/UVIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)

http://hubblesite.org/gallery/wallpaper/pr2009025q/

2


A close up of the central region
A close up of the WFC3/UVIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)central region.

3


This image was made by combining separate red green and blue images
This image was made by combining WFC3/UVIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)separate red, green, and blue images.

4


The red image is from filter f814w which sees only very red light
The WFC3/UVIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)red image is from filter F814W, which sees only very red light.

5


The green image is from filter f336w which sees only blue light
The WFC3/UVIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)green image is from filter F336W, which sees only blue light.

6


The blue image is from filter f225w which sees only ultra violet light
The WFC3/UVIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)blue image is from filter F225W, which sees only ultra-violet light.

7


The combined image again
The combined image again. WFC3/UVIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)

8


The colors are so extreme because
The colors are so extreme because… WFC3/UVIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)

9


The red stars have almost no blue light and the blue stars have almost no red light
… the WFC3/UVIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)red stars have almost no blue light, and the blue stars have almost no red light.

10


The composite image again
The composite image again. WFC3/UVIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)

11



They like to sort the stars by color, putting the quantitative way.blue stars on the left and the red stars on the right.

13a


They like to sort the stars by color, putting the quantitative way.blue stars on the left and the red stars on the right.

13b


They like to sort the stars by color, putting the quantitative way.blue stars on the left and the red stars on the right.

13c


They like to sort the stars by color, putting the quantitative way.blue stars on the left and the red stars on the right.

13d


They like to sort the stars by color, putting the quantitative way.blue stars on the left and the red stars on the right.

13e


They like to sort the stars by color, putting the quantitative way.blue stars on the left and the red stars on the right.

13f


They like to sort the stars by color, putting the quantitative way.blue stars on the left and the red stars on the right.

13g


They like to sort the stars by color, putting the quantitative way.blue stars on the left and the red stars on the right.

13h


They like to sort the stars by color, putting the quantitative way.blue stars on the left and the red stars on the right.

13i


They like to sort the stars by color, putting the quantitative way.blue stars on the left and the red stars on the right.

13j


They like to sort the stars by color, putting the quantitative way.blue stars on the left and the red stars on the right.

13k


Note that there are very few extreme stars; most stars are quantitative way.white, meaning they have a balanced spectrum.

14



They like to sort the stars putting the bright stars on top and the faint stars on the bottom
They like to sort the stars, brightness.putting the bright stars on top, and the faint stars on the bottom.

15a


They like to sort the stars putting the bright stars on top and the faint stars on the bottom1
They like to sort the stars, brightness.putting the bright stars on top, and the faint stars on the bottom.

15b


They like to sort the stars putting the bright stars on top and the faint stars on the bottom2
They like to sort the stars, brightness.putting the bright stars on top, and the faint stars on the bottom.

15c


They like to sort the stars putting the bright stars on top and the faint stars on the bottom3
They like to sort the stars, brightness.putting the bright stars on top, and the faint stars on the bottom.

15d


They like to sort the stars putting the bright stars on top and the faint stars on the bottom4
They like to sort the stars, brightness.putting the bright stars on top, and the faint stars on the bottom.

15e


They like to sort the stars putting the bright stars on top and the faint stars on the bottom5
They like to sort the stars, brightness.putting the bright stars on top, and the faint stars on the bottom.

15f


They like to sort the stars putting the bright stars on top and the faint stars on the bottom6
They like to sort the stars, brightness.putting the bright stars on top, and the faint stars on the bottom.

15g


They like to sort the stars putting the bright stars on top and the faint stars on the bottom7
They like to sort the stars, brightness.putting the bright stars on top, and the faint stars on the bottom.

15h


They like to sort the stars putting the bright stars on top and the faint stars on the bottom8
They like to sort the stars, brightness.putting the bright stars on top, and the faint stars on the bottom.

15i


They like to sort the stars putting the bright stars on top and the faint stars on the bottom9
They like to sort the stars, brightness.putting the bright stars on top, and the faint stars on the bottom.

15j


They like to sort the stars putting the bright stars on top and the faint stars on the bottom10
They like to sort the stars, brightness.putting the bright stars on top, and the faint stars on the bottom.

15k


This is called a color magnitude diagram cmd
This is called a brightness.Color-Magnitude Diagram (CMD).

16


When Astronomers first plotted stars this way, they realized that stars don’t fall just anywhere in the diagram.

17


Stars tend to lie along a few well defined sequences
Stars tend to lie along a few well-defined sequences. that stars don’t fall just anywhere in the diagram.

18


The unmistakable order in diagrams like this led astronomers to develop theories to explain stellar evolution.

19


The vast majority of stars lie along the main sequence ms
The vast majority of stars lie along the to develop theories to explain stellar evolution.Main Sequence (MS).

MS

20a


Stars don’t move along this sequence; rather they sit at the same place for a long time fusing their hydrogen into helium.

MS

20b


This is a sequence in mass. Stars at the bright end are massive, and those at the faint, red end have very low masses.

MS

20c


The more massive stars consume their hydrogen fuel much faster than the lower mass stars
The more massive stars consume their hydrogen fuel much faster than the lower-mass stars.

MS

20d


When fuel becomes sparse in the stellar core, stars readjust their internal structure and move red-ward along the Sub-Giant Branch (SGB).

SGB

MS

21


RGB their internal structure and move red-ward along the

They start to burn the hydrogen in a shell around the core and become big and bloated as they move up the Red Giant Branch (RGB).

SGB

MS

22a


As the shell burning continues more and more helium gets deposited onto the core

RGB their internal structure and move red-ward along the

As the shell-burning continues, more and more helium gets deposited onto the core.

SGB

MS

22b


When the core has enough mass it is finally able to ignite helium into carbon

RGB their internal structure and move red-ward along the

When the core has enough mass, it is finally able to ignite helium into carbon.

SGB

MS

22c


The star readjusts its structure again and finds itself on the horizontal branch hb

RGB their internal structure and move red-ward along the

HB

The star readjusts its structure again and finds itself on the Horizontal Branch (HB).

SGB

MS

23a


The helium fuel is not as potent as the hydrogen so it runs out quickly

RGB their internal structure and move red-ward along the

HB

The helium fuel is not as potent as the hydrogen, so it runs out quickly.

SGB

MS

23b


RGB their internal structure and move red-ward along the

HB

That is why there are so few stars on the HB compared to the MS. Stars do not spend much time on the HB.

SGB

MS

23c


RGB their internal structure and move red-ward along the

HB

When the helium is gone, the star has no more fuel. With nothing left to burn, it fades away into blue darkness as a White Dwarf (WD).

SGB

WD

MS

24


RGB their internal structure and move red-ward along the

HB

SGB

WD

MS

Since a star’s color and brightness tell us its evolutionary phase, we can easily identify stars by phase in the image.

25


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