ns 435 unit 2 impact of ecological changes on agriculture
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NS 435 Unit 2: Impact of Ecological Changes on Agriculture. Lei Wang, Ph.D. How Ecological Changes Affect Agriculture/Food Production? Short-Term Effects Long-Term Effects How Modern Agriculture Impacts the Climate? Alternative Solutions/Opportunities?. Outline.

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outline

How Ecological Changes Affect Agriculture/Food Production?

Short-Term Effects

Long-Term Effects

  • How Modern Agriculture Impacts the Climate?
  • Alternative Solutions/Opportunities?
Outline
food for thought

According to Siikamaki, (2006) “Agriculture is frequently discussed in the context of climate change: not only is agriculture vulnerable to climate change, it is also part of the problem and its potential solutions.”

-Siikamaki, Juha. (2006). Climate Change and U.S. Agriculture. Examining the Connections. Environment, pg(s). 36-49.

Food for Thought
climate context

According to Peter Backlund from NCAR,

“Human activities have altered the global climate.

During the 20th century, the global average surface

T increased 0.6 C and global sea level

increased 15 to 20 cm.”

  • -Backlund, P., Janetos, A., and Schimel, D. Executive Summary: The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity, pages 1-10.
Climate Context
climate context1

“… human influences will continue to change Earth’s climate throughout the 21st century. The global average T will rise another 1.1 to 5.4 C by 2100. Which will result in continued increases in sea level and overall rainfall.”

  • -Backlund, P., Janetos, A., and Schimel, D. Executive Summary: The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity, pages 1-10.
Climate Context
examples of ecological factors

Temperature

  • Precipitation
  • CO2 concentrations
  • Water availability
  • Change in pest populations, plant diseases, and weeds.
Examples of Ecological Factors
how may ecological changes affect agriculture food production

Drought/Flooding: (extreme weather events)

    • Soil moisture/erosion, evaporation
  • Water pollution (i.e. agricultural run-off)
  • Heat Stress w/ rising temps– crops, livestock
  • Pollution levels (soil & H20)
How May Ecological ChangesAffect Agriculture/Food Production?
how may ecological changes affect agriculture food production1

Increased pests, disease, weeds

  • Some crops more sensitive to rising temps (tomatoes– e.g.)
  • Altered Food Webs (e.g. polluted waters- marine food webs)
How May Ecological ChangesAffect Agriculture/Food Production?
short term effects of climate change on agriculture

Some crops– may improve growing conditions

- however, with continued temp increase (esp. Southern regions) some crops may not adapt.

- Northern regions may benefit most (since tend to be cooler.) e.g. longer growing season opportunity.

-- Possible to grow new crops/different crops.

Short-Term Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture
earth s future climate

A vast majority of climate scientists agree that Earth will warm along with increasing greenhouse gases. However, the effects will be far more varied than a simple and uniform warming over the entire planet.

Earth’s Future Climate
earth s future climate1

Translate temperature changes from a model into trends that affect people\'s everyday lives. A 2004 NCAR study found that, by the period 2080-99, American and European heat waves will be more severe, frequent, and long-lasting.

Earth’s Future Climate
earth s future climate2

Another related study found that frost days will decline in many parts of the globe by 2080-99. The largest decreases are projected across the northwest parts of Europe and North America.

  • Such a change would affect agriculture and tourism as well as natural ecosystems.
Earth’s Future Climate
how modern agriculture impacts the climate

GHG emissions (burning of fossil fuels, manure, food transportation– e.g.)

  • Significant user of H20 resources.
  • Significant user of land resources.
How Modern AgricultureImpacts the Climate
how modern agriculture impacts the climate1

Livestock– methane emissions

  • Factory Farming- e.g. (produce large amount of GHG)
How Modern AgricultureImpacts the Climate
alternative solutions opportunities

GMO’s– e.g. resistant to drought/flooding

  • New, more tolerant crops
  • More irrigation, water storage
  • Agriculture & Forests = GHG “sinks”
Alternative Solutions/Opportunities?
alternative solutions opportunities1

Methane capture “tanks”

  • Increase irrigation efficiency
  • Focus on locally produce foods– e.g. Farmers Markets
  • Improved fertilization practices– e.g. timing
Alternative Solutions/Opportunities?
references

Backlund, P., Janetos, A., and Schimel, D.

Executive Summary: The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity, pages 1-10.

-Retrieved from:

http://www.usda.gov/oce/global_change/files/SAP4_3/ExecSummary.pdf

  • Siikamaki, Juha. (2006). Climate Change and U.S. Agriculture: Examining the Connections. Environment, pgs. 36-49.
  • Retrieved from:

http://kucourses.com/ec/courses/24739/CRS-NS435-3407037/Unit_2_Climate_Change_and_US_Agriculture.pdf

Earth’s Future Climate: http://www.ncar.ucar.edu/research/climate/future.php

References
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