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Clinical Decision Making. Topics. Paramedics as Practitioners Life-Threatening Conditions Protocols, Standing Orders, Algorithms Critical Thinking Process “Six R’s” of Putting It All Together. Introduction.

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Clinical Decision Making

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Clinical decision making

Clinical Decision Making



  • Paramedics as Practitioners

  • Life-Threatening Conditions

  • Protocols, Standing Orders,Algorithms

  • Critical Thinking Process

  • “Six R’s” of Putting It AllTogether



  • 21st Century Paramedics areprehospital practitioners ofemergency medicine—not field technicians.

  • As a paramedic, you inevitably willface your moment of truth—a critical decision that can mean thedifference between life and death.

Clinical decision making

Making critical decisions requires critical judgment—the use of knowledge and experience to diagnose patients and plan their treatment.

A paramedic

A Paramedic

  • …must gather, evaluate, and synthesize much information in very little time.

  • …can then develop a field diagnosis—a prehospital evaluation of the patient’s condition and its causes.



  • The severity or acuteness of your patient’s condition.

Clinical decision making

The spectrum of care in the prehospital setting includes three general classes of patient acuity.

Classes of acuity

Classes of Acuity

  • Those with obvious life-threats

  • Those with potential life-threats

  • Those with non-life-threatening presentations

Obvious life threats include

Obvious life-threats include…

  • Major multi-system trauma

  • Devastating single-system trauma

  • End-stage disease (ie, renal failure)

Potential life threats include

Potential life-threats include…

  • Serious multi-system trauma

  • Multiple disease etiology

Non life threats include

Non-life-threats include…

  • Isolated minor illnesses andinjuries

Clinical decision making

Protocols, standing orders, and patient care algorithms provide a standardized approach to

emergency patient care.



  • A standard that includes general and specific principles for managing certain patient conditions.

Standing orders

Standing Orders

  • Treatments you can perform before contacting the medical control physician for permission.



  • Schematic flow chart that outlines appropriate care for specific signs and symptoms.

Clinical decision making

To use an algorithm, follow the arrows to your patient’s symptoms and provide care as indicated.

Clinical decision making

While algorithms, standing orders, and protocols provide paramedics with guidance…

Clinical decision making

Do not allow the linear thinking, or “Cookbook Medicine” that protocols promote to restrain you from consulting with your medical direction physician.

Paramedic s critical thinking skills 1 of 2

Paramedic’s Critical Thinking Skills(1 of 2)

  • Knowing anatomy, physiology, andpathophysiology

  • Focusing on large amounts of data

  • Organizing information

  • Identifying and dealing with medicalambiguity

Paramedic s critical thinking skills 2 of 2

Paramedic’s Critical Thinking Skills(2 of 2)

  • Differentiating between relevant and irrelevant data

  • Analyzing and comparing similar situations

  • Explaining decisions and constructing logical arguments

Clinical decision making

Be like the duck—cool and calm on the water’s surface, while paddling feverishly underneath!

Clinical decision making

Except for safety concerns, never allow anything to distract you from your most important job—assessing and caring for your patient.

Clinical decision making

Use reflective, anticipatory thinking when assessing and treating patients.

Thinking under pressure

Thinking Under Pressure

  • With experience, you will learn tomanage nervousness and maintain a steadfast, controlled demeanor.

  • Develop a routine mental checklistto stay focused and systematic.

Mental checklist

Mental Checklist

  • Scan the situation

  • Stop and think

  • Decide and act

  • Maintain control

  • Re-evaluate

The critical decision process

The Critical Decision Process

  • Form a concept

  • Interpret the data

  • Apply the principles

  • Evaluate

  • Reflect

Putting it all together

Putting It All Together

The Six R’s

  • Read the scene

  • Read the patient

  • React

  • Re-evaluate

  • Revise the management plan

  • Review your performance



  • Paramedics as Practitioners

  • Life-Threatening Conditions

  • Protocols, Standing Orders,Algorithms

  • Critical Thinking Process

  • “Six R’s” of Putting It AllTogether

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