The start of a sprint race is that part of the race from the firing of the gun to the departure from the starting blocks and the term generally includes the first strides out of the blocks.
TYPES OF STARTS: blocks.
1. The Bunch Start :(Sometimes referred to as the Bullet start) This is where the feet are close together with the toes of the back foot opposite the heel of the front foot. Sometimes the feet are even closer together. This would generally involve a block spacing of less than 30cm.
2. The Medium Start : blocks.the feet are further apart. The knee of the back leg is placed reverse a point towards the toes of the front foot. The inter-block distance of this start has been described as about shin length apart. Arnold (1992) describes a position many athletes use these days which is a little less than shin length apart, but not so closes as to call a Bunch or Bullet start.
3. Elongated Start :the knee of the back leg is placed level or just behind the heel of the front foot. It has been described as a position where the inter-block distance is well in excess of shin length. An inter-block distance in excess of 50cm could be described as an elongated start.
BLOCK ANGLES blocks.
FOOT POSITION blocks.
In order to get more pre-tension in the calf muscles, the first spikes of both feet should be positioned on the track. With pre-stretched calf muscles, it is possible to get a more efficient start.
If the body mass is centred more on the legs than on the arms, pre-tension may be increased.
DISTANCE FROM STARTING LINE
In deciding the distance between the front foot and the starting line, (Barbaro 1983) mentions that weight distribution, hip position and the effect of foot drive must be considered.