Spaces and places
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Spaces and Places. TRMT 396 Lecture #8. Dan McDonald. The Power of Place. Communal identity and connection to land is attractive to tourists Visiting a cultural landscape rather than a wilderness ‘untrammeled’ Activities & places to visit then seen as more/less culturally appropriate

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Spaces and places

Spaces and Places

TRMT 396

Lecture #8

Dan McDonald


The power of place

The Power of Place

  • Communal identity and connection to land is attractive to tourists

  • Visiting a cultural landscape rather than a wilderness ‘untrammeled’

  • Activities & places to visit then seen as more/less culturally appropriate

  • Endorsed OR tolerated OR banned

Notzke (2006); Carr (2007)


Contested terrain

Contested Terrain

  • Sacred sites can coincide with natural features attractive for recreation

  • Examples:

    • Devil’s Tower

    • Uluru

    • Black Hills

    • Chaco Canyon

  • Parks a “nexus of different cultures”

  • Place s of solitude or challenge OR spiritual practice & harvesting


Hunting harvesting harmony

Hunting, Harvesting & Harmony

  • Past history of guiding for tourist hunters and fishers

  • Economy over-rode concerns about sport hunting

  • Long history of sport hunters limiting traditional harvesting and access to wildlands

  • In some cases separate tourists from harvesting activity


Tourism environmental justice

Tourism & Environmental Justice

  • Fair Compensation

    • Fair exchange of goods, ‘bads’ & risks

  • Participative Justice

    • Informed consent with a veto or acceptance

  • Direct Participation & Recognition Justice

    • Determination of how social circumstances & cultural terms will be expressed

Powys Whyte (2010)


Culture in landscape and landscape in culture

Culture in Landscape and Landscape in Culture

  • Environmental Identity

  • Environmental Heritage

  • “ responsibility to protect the aspects of our relationship to our environmental that we wish to preserve for future community members” (p.81)

  • Tourists want to be exposed to these

  • Tribal members want to work within & re-affirm sense of place & identity

Powys Whyte (2010)


Hishuk ish ts awalk

Hishuk-ishts’awalk

  • Whole of life is characterized by relationships that are inherent and demand beneficial reciprocity

  • The physical and spiritual world are one

  • System of “management’ flows from this understanding

  • Hahuulthi

    • Chiefly Governance

    • Decision making as custodians

    • Resource responsibilities

  • Oosumich

    • The protocol of spiritual transaction that guides decisions

    • Testing the continued validity of spiritual tradition

Atleo (2005)


Nuu chah nulth example pacific rim national park reserve

Nuu-Chah-Nulth example (Pacific Rim National Park Reserve)

  • “But the ownership is titles of our land, that has never been signed by mamuthni that they are titled to it. So, it belongs to our chiefs here. Like I said the other day, there was 900 some odd names of types of songs that’s about cougars. Indian names, those names have been sitting there for thousands of years and it hasn’t changed. The boundary lines are still there, recognized by our people. Still there today and still high ranked names are still there today”

    (McAvoy, McDonald & Carlson, 2003)


Cautious park engagement

Cautious Park Engagement

  • Suspicious of park creation given timing of past park expansions (1970’s Parks Canada and 1990’s B.C. Parks) and land removal

  • Creating own & co-managing parks in ways more consistent with environmental heritage & identity

  • Promoting tourism on these lands


Issues for first nations land managers and co managers

Issues for First Nations Land managers and co-managers

  • Respect traditional land management systems & use

  • Operate from an expanded sense of stewardship

  • Community consent

  • Joint/shared territory issues

  • Pressures to create economy in communities

  • Balancing aboriginal and non-aboriginal users

  • Cultural interpretation and protection

  • Intellectual property protection e.g. medicines

(McDonald, McDonald & McAvoy, 2000)


Concluding thoughts

Concluding Thoughts

  • Tourism can reconfirm relationship to place or alter it

  • Visitor demand for indigenous space s & to understand their heritage is increasing

  • Places & homelands protect identity

  • Recognition of these relationships is not only just, but the key to ongoing cultural identities


Additional sources

Additional Sources

  • Atleo, R. (2005). Tsawalk: A Nuu-Chah-Nulth Worldview. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press.

  • McAvoy, L., McDonald, D. & Carlson, M. (2003). American Indian/First Nation Place Attachment to Park Lands: The Case of the Nuu-Chah-Nulth of British Columbia. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. 21 (2): 84-104.

  • McDonald, D., McDonald, T. & McAvoy, L. (2000). Tribal Wilderness Research Needs and Issues in the United States and Canada. Proceedings of the 2nd International Wilderness Science Conference, Vol 2. USDA Forest Service RMRS-P-15-VOL-2, Ogden, UT.


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