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Somatic and Special Senses. Special Senses . General senses. Smell Taste Vision Hearing Balance . Tactile Touch Pressure Thermal (hot vs cold) Pain Proprioceptive. Sensory receptors. Detect environmental changes and trigger nerve impulse Neurons have specific job E.x.

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Special Senses

General senses

  • Smell

  • Taste

  • Vision

  • Hearing

  • Balance

  • Tactile

    • Touch

    • Pressure

  • Thermal (hot vs cold)

  • Pain

  • Proprioceptive


Sensory receptors
Sensory receptors

  • Detect environmental changes and trigger nerve impulse

  • Neurons have specific job

    • E.x


Adaptation
Adaptation

  • Sensors adapt by

    • Decrease in responsiveness

    • Perception of stimulus fades/disappears

  • Fast adapting

    • Signal change

    • E.x

  • Slow adapting

    • Trigger impulses if stimulus persists

    • E.x.


Types of receptors
Types of Receptors

  • Mechanoreceptors

    • Touch, pressure, hearing

  • Nociceptors

    • pain

  • Photoreceptors

    • light

  • Chemoreceptors

    • Chemicals in nose and mouth

  • Osmoreceptors

    • Osmotic pressure



Types of mechanoreceptors1
Types of mechanoreceptors

  • Merkel receptors

    • Sense fine detail

    • Fires continuously

  • Meissner corpuscle

    • Control hand grip

    • Fire when stimulus is added and removed


Types of mechanoreceptors continued
Types of mechanoreceptors(Continued)

  • Ruffini corpuscle

    • Sensitive to stretching skin

    • Fire continuously

  • Pacinian corpuscle

    • Respond to fine detail when moving fingers

    • Fire when stimulus is applied and removed


Homunucleus analysis

Homunucleus Analysis


Pressure vs touch
Pressure vs touch your arm while a large portion is devoted to your hands and fingers?

  • Pressure is a sustained sensation

  • Large area

  • Deeper tissues

  • Touch receptors are stimulated

  • Limited area


Other sensations
Other sensations your arm while a large portion is devoted to your hands and fingers?

  • Itch & tickling

    • Both arise from stimulation of free nerve endings

  • Hot & cold

    • Cold receptors (epidermis)

    • Hot receptors (dermis)

    • Both work in specific temp range

  • What happens when they are exposed to extreme temps?


pain your arm while a large portion is devoted to your hands and fingers?

  • Fast Pain

    • Localized

    • E.x

  • Slow Pain

    • Localized in large area

    • E.x

  • Why can’t the brain feel pain?

    • Because is does not contain nocicptors

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnABHy6tjL8


Homunucleus
Homunucleus your arm while a large portion is devoted to your hands and fingers?


Homunucleus1
Homunucleus your arm while a large portion is devoted to your hands and fingers?

  • Is a map that corresponds body part to touch sensitivity

  • Is this proportional?

  • Would you expect everyone to have the same image?


Make your own homonucleus analysis questions

Make your own homonucleus Analysis Questions


Does cancer have an odor
Does cancer have an odor? size of the body part? Is it reversed?

Dogs

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7mI5Jj9aAQ

  • http://sciencenetlinks.com/science-news/science-updates/cancer-sniffing-dogs/

    Training

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IZA9R0uSGWc


Olfaction aka sense of smell
olfaction size of the body part? Is it reversed? (AKA Sense of smell)

  • Which structure detects an odor?

    • Olfactory receptor

      Olfactory Epithelium

  • Olfactory receptor

    • Have hair like extensions

  • Basal cells

    • Stem cells that go through cell division


Olfactory pathway
Olfactory Pathway size of the body part? Is it reversed?

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snJnO6OpjCs

  • How do we detect an odor?

    • Odor

    • Receptor

    • Olfactory bulb

    • Olfactory tract

    • Limbic system or temporal lobe


How smell is integrated by the brain
How smell is integrated by the brain size of the body part? Is it reversed?


Gustation aka sense of taste
Gustation size of the body part? Is it reversed? (AkA Sense of taste)

  • Sour

  • Sweet

  • Bitter

  • Salty

  • Umami (savory/meaty)

  • How does a cold affect your sense of taste?


Taste buds papillae
Taste Buds size of the body part? Is it reversed? (Papillae)

  • Cover the surface of the tongue

  • Most are found on the tongue

    Gustatory Pathway

  • Taste receptors

  • Cranial nerves

  • Medulla oblongata

  • Limbic system

  • Parietal lobe


Gustatory pathway
Gustatory pathway size of the body part? Is it reversed?


How the brain understands taste
How the brain understands taste size of the body part? Is it reversed?

  • Caused by the release of a neurotransmitter

  • Why do foods taste different?

    • By activating different groups of neurons


Mapping taste buds
Mapping taste buds size of the body part? Is it reversed?

  • Where are the receptors for salt found?

  • Where are the receptors for sweet found?

  • Where are the receptors for sour found?

  • Where are the receptors for bitter found?

  • Where are the receptors for savory found?


Vision
Vision size of the body part? Is it reversed?

  • Accessory structures

  • Eyebrows

  • Eyelashes

  • Eyelids

  • Muscles

  • Lacrimal apparatus(tears)


Science of tears
Science of tears size of the body part? Is it reversed?

  • What are tears?

    • Salt, mucus, lysozyme (kills bacteria)

    • Clean, lubricate and moisten

  • When do we produce tears?

    • Parasympathetic stimulation (emotional)

    • Clear irritants


Flow of tears
Flow of tears size of the body part? Is it reversed?


Anatomy of the eye
Anatomy of the eye size of the body part? Is it reversed?


Layers of the eyeball
Layers of the size of the body part? Is it reversed? EYEball

  • Fibrous tunic

    • Cornea

    • Sclera

  • Vascular tunic

    • Choroid

    • Ciliary body

    • iris

  • Retina


Fibrous tunic
fibrous Tunic size of the body part? Is it reversed?

  • Cornea

    • Is curved

    • This varies in individuals and as you age

  • Sclera

    • “White” of the eye

    • Gives shape

    • Protects

    • Point of muscle attachment


Vascular tunic
Vascular Tunic size of the body part? Is it reversed?

  • Choroid

    • Lines the sclera

    • Nourishes the retina

  • Cilliary body

    • Muscle- controls the shape of the lens

    • Process- secretes aqueous humor

  • Aqueous humor

    • Nourishes the eye as it ciculates through both chambers


Vascular tunic1
Vascular Tunic size of the body part? Is it reversed?

  • Lens

    • Changes shape to focus light on retina

    • Clearer vision

    • Held in place by zonular fibers

  • Iris

    • Is convex (curves outward)

    • Colored part of eye

  • Pupil

    • Light enters here

    • Diameter changes in response to light


The iris is a muscle that controls the size of the pupil. The iris is the colored part of the eye.

  • In bright light, the iris expands and the pupil gets smaller

  • In low light, the iris contracts and the pupil gets bigger


Retina
Retina The iris is the colored part of the eye.

  • Photoreceptors

    • Light sensitive cells

    • Transmit info to brain

    • E.x. rods and cones

  • Rods

    • Low light

    • Sense shades of grey

  • Cones

    • Need brighter light

    • Sense color


Retina continued
Retina The iris is the colored part of the eye. (continued)

  • Fovea centralis

    • Sharp central vision

    • Lots of cones and zero rods

  • Optic disk

    • “blind spot”

    • Does not have photoreceptors (rods and cones)


Inside the eyeball
Inside the eyeball The iris is the colored part of the eye.

  • Vitreous body

    • Fluid that prevents the eye from collapsing

  • Intraocular pressure

    • Refers to fluid inside the eye

    • Balance between production and drainage of aqueous humor


Muscles of the eyeball
Muscles of the eyeball The iris is the colored part of the eye.

  • Ciliary muscle

    • Controls diameter of pupil

  • Lateral rectus muscle

    • Moves eye inward

  • Medial rectus muscle

    • Moves eye outward

  • Orbicularis oculi

    • Open and close the eyelids


Types of cones

. The iris is the colored part of the eye.

Types of cones

  • Red cones

    • Sense red light

  • Green cones

    • Sense green light

  • Blue cones

    • Sense blue light


Image formation
Image formation The iris is the colored part of the eye.

  • Refraction

    • Bending of light rays

    • Occurs at the cornea and lens

  • Images on retina

    • Are inverted

    • Undergo left-right reversal


Viewing objects
Viewing objects The iris is the colored part of the eye.

  • Distant objects (20 ft away)

    • Light rays are parallel

    • Curvature is aligned (lens is flat)

  • Near objects

    • Light rays are divergent

    • Lens must increase curvature (rounder)

    • This is called accommodation


What does 20 20 vision really mean
What does 20/20 vision really mean? The iris is the colored part of the eye.

  • At 20 ft away from an object you see what the average person sees


What about 20 40 vision
What about 20/40 vision? The iris is the colored part of the eye.

  • When standing 20 ft away from an object you see what someone with normal vision can see when they stand 40 ft away

    • You need to be closer to the object


What about 20 10 vision
What about 20/10 vision? The iris is the colored part of the eye.

  • This means that when you stand 20 feet away from an object you see what the average person sees when they stand 10 feet away from the object

  • Hawk’s have 20/2 vision, what does this mean?


How does accomodation work
How does The iris is the colored part of the eye. accomodation work?


The retina
The retina The iris is the colored part of the eye.

Two layers

  • Neural layer

    • Different types of neurons

    • E.x. photorecpetors

  • Pigmented layer

    • Contains melanin which helps absorb light rays


The visual pathway
The visual pathway The iris is the colored part of the eye.

Images (light rays):

  • Enter the pupil

  • Lens inverts imageand projects onto retina

  • Optic nerve carries message to brain (crosses over at optic chiasm)

  • Brain interprets image


Binocular vision
Binocular Vision The iris is the colored part of the eye.

  • The ability to focus on a set of objects

    • Depth

    • 3D vision

  • Convergence

    • Occurs when you move forward

    • Movement of eye inward


Testing binocular vision

Have your partner hold two different pencils at different distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

With both eyes open, try to grab the pencil that is furthest from you.

Repeat steps one and two a twice. Have your partner change the pencils distance with each trial

Repeat steps one through three with one eye closed

Testing binocular vision


Structure of the ear
Structure of the Ear distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

Made up of

  • External ear

    • Collects sound waves and moves them inward

  • Middle ear

    • Conveys sound to oval window

  • Internal ear

    • Receptors for hearing and equilibrium


External outer ear
External (outer) Ear distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

  • Auricle

    • Directs sound waves towards the external auditory canal

  • External auditory canal

    • Funnels sound toward the tympanic membrane

  • Tympanic membrane

    • Vibrates due to sound waves


Middle ear
Middle ear distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

  • Auditory tube

    • Equalizes pressure on both sides of the eardrum (when open)

  • Auditory ossicles

    • Deliver sound vibrations to inner ear

    • Amplify sound

  • Oval window

    • Transfers vibrations from ossicles to cochlea


Internal inner ear
Internal (inner) ear distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

  • Bony labyrinth

    • Chochlea

      • Sense organ for hearing

    • Vestibule and Semicircular canals

      • Sense organs for equilibrium and balance


Anatomy of the ear key
Anatomy of the ear Key distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

  • Estachian tube

  • Tympanic membrane

  • Semicircular canals and vestibule

  • Ear wax, protects

  • External auditory canal

  • Round Window

  • Malleus- hammer

    Incus- Anvil

    Stapes- stirrup

  • 8th cranial/auditory nerve

  • Auricle

  • Oval Window

  • Auditory Ossicles

  • Ear drum

  • Cochlea

  • Omit

  • To prevent foreign objects from entering the ear


What prevents foreign objects from getting into the ear
What prevents foreign objects from getting into distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen. the ear?


Earwax fail
Earwax fail! distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZgLWl1bjH84


Tympanic membrane
Tympanic membrane distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

  • Thin membrane

  • Vibrates due to sound waves

  • What can cause it to tear?

    • Trauma or infection


Physiology of hearing
Physiology of hearing distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

Describe the process

What happens to your hearing as a result of aging?

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=stiPMLtjYAw

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1SFHNR7Lp4E


Cochlea
Cochlea distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

Three fluid filled channels

  • Cochlear duct

  • Scala vestibuli

  • Scala tympani

  • Basilar membrane

    • Vibrates in same pattern as sound waves

  • Organ of Corti

    • Organ of hearing

    • Supporting cells

    • Hair cells

Cochlear Implant

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zeg4qTnYOpw

Use of Implant

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vABtdTSgGCM


Physiology of equilibrium
Physiology of Equilibrium distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

  • Static equilibrium

    • Position of body relative to gravity

    • E.x

  • How is it maintained?


Physiology of equilibrium1
Physiology of Equilibrium distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

  • Dynamic equilibrium

    • Position of body relative to rotation

    • E.x

  • How is it maintained?


Just a couple of questions

Explain the needed for popping your ears distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

Cliff works the night shift and sometimes falls asleep in class. What is the effect on the structures of in his internal ear when his head falls backward as he slumps in his seat?

Just a couple of questions


What do i need to know for the quiz

Types of receptors distances in front of you so that both pencils can be seen.

Types of mechanoreceptors

Anatomy of the ear

Structures of the ear

Difference between static and dynamic equilibrium

What do I need to know for the quiz?


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