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Mapping the Cortex. To be human, more does matter. Brains of Mammals. More cortical surface area. KW 2-2. Hemispheres. Two brains in one. Lobes . Based on skull bones. Phrenology . Franz Gall. Broca’s discovery. Neuorologist working in Paris in 1860’s Patient called “Tan”

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Mapping the Cortex

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Mapping the cortex l.jpg

Mapping the Cortex

To be human, more does matter


Brains of mammals l.jpg

Brains of Mammals

More cortical surface area

KW 2-2


Hemispheres l.jpg

Hemispheres

Two brains in one


Lobes l.jpg

Lobes

Based on skull bones


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Phrenology

Franz Gall


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Broca’s discovery

  • Neuorologist working in Paris in 1860’s

  • Patient called “Tan”

  • Understood commands

  • Couldn’t speak

  • After Tan’s death, Broca found area of damage in frontal lobe


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Tan’s Brain

  • Broca presented case study on Tan in 1862


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Korbinian Brodmann

  • 1868-1918

  • Neurologist

  • Research suggested by Alois Alzheimer

  • Mapped the cell structure of the brain

  • 52 discrete areas

  • First complete and accurate map (1909)


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Brodmann Areas of Cortex

Numbered areas to changes in cell structure

Kw 2-21


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Penfield’s Neurosurgery

Wilder Penfield:

A pioneer in neurosurgery

Temporal lobe epilepsy

First studies of living, reacting brain


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Motor and Sensory Cortex

Note difference in cell structure:

Brodmann maps

One of Penfield’s

discoveries

Motor and Sensory strips

KW 2-22


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Motor and Sensory Strips

Homunculus


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Sensory strip contains

  • Skin Sensations

    • pressure

    • warmth

    • cold

    • pain


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Also on sensory strip are

  • Kinesthesis

    • the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

  • Vestibular Sense

    • the sense of body movement and position

    • including the sense of balance


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Motor and Sensory Strips

Homunculus


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Contralateral Control

KW 2-32


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Sensory and Motor Strips

  • Contralateral control

  • Amount of cortex related to abilities not size of body area

  • Sensory and motor side by side


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Visual Areas

KW 8-17


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Visual cortex responds

  • Functional MRI scan of the visual cortex activated by light shown in the subject’s eyes`


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Auditory Areas

KW 9-12


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Broca’s area

Broca’s located next to

motor strip area for face

(light blue)

Broca’s area

KW 9-17


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Carl Wernicke

  • 1848-1904

  • Born in Poland

  • Educated in Germany

  • Psychiatry and neurology

  • Studies on receptive aphasia in 1874

  • Wernicke’s area in temporal lobe


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Wernicke’s area

  • Patient unable to comprehend commands

  • Able to speak but speech lacked meaning

  • Wernicke’s area next to auditory area on temporal lobe


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Thought to Spoken Word

KW 9-17


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Prefrontal Lobes

Frontal lobes

Area just behind the forehead


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Prefrontal Cortex

KW 11-16


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Prefrontal Cortex and Limbic System

KW 11-15


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Limbic and Frontal Lobes

Limbic system and fontal lobes interact to control behavior

KW 11-15


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Egas Moniz

  • 1875-1955

  • Portuguese neurologist and politician

  • Developed angiogram to visualize blood supply to brain

  • Frontal lobe surgery

  • Nobel prize in 1949


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Lobotomy

  • First lobotomy in US preformed in 1937 by Walter Freeman

  • Calming effect

  • Less anxious

  • Lack of care and concern

  • Loss of motivation

KW 11-24


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Phineas Gage


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Gage’s rock drilling


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Gage Recreated

  • New imaging techniques allow us to see how rod passed through Gage’s frontal lobes.

KW 1-5


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Visiting Gage Site

For directions, visit Gage website at

www.hbs.deakin.edu.au/gagepage/pgage.htm  


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PET Scanner

KW 9-20


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PET Scan Images

KW 9-21


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That’s all folks.


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