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Mapping the Cortex. To be human, more does matter. Brains of Mammals. More cortical surface area. KW 2-2. Hemispheres. Two brains in one. Lobes . Based on skull bones. Phrenology . Franz Gall. Broca’s discovery. Neuorologist working in Paris in 1860’s Patient called “Tan”

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Mapping the Cortex

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Mapping the Cortex

To be human, more does matter


Brains of Mammals

More cortical surface area

KW 2-2


Hemispheres

Two brains in one


Lobes

Based on skull bones


Phrenology

Franz Gall


Broca’s discovery

  • Neuorologist working in Paris in 1860’s

  • Patient called “Tan”

  • Understood commands

  • Couldn’t speak

  • After Tan’s death, Broca found area of damage in frontal lobe


Tan’s Brain

  • Broca presented case study on Tan in 1862


Korbinian Brodmann

  • 1868-1918

  • Neurologist

  • Research suggested by Alois Alzheimer

  • Mapped the cell structure of the brain

  • 52 discrete areas

  • First complete and accurate map (1909)


Brodmann Areas of Cortex

Numbered areas to changes in cell structure

Kw 2-21


Penfield’s Neurosurgery

Wilder Penfield:

A pioneer in neurosurgery

Temporal lobe epilepsy

First studies of living, reacting brain


Motor and Sensory Cortex

Note difference in cell structure:

Brodmann maps

One of Penfield’s

discoveries

Motor and Sensory strips

KW 2-22


Motor and Sensory Strips

Homunculus


Sensory strip contains

  • Skin Sensations

    • pressure

    • warmth

    • cold

    • pain


Also on sensory strip are

  • Kinesthesis

    • the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

  • Vestibular Sense

    • the sense of body movement and position

    • including the sense of balance


Motor and Sensory Strips

Homunculus


Contralateral Control

KW 2-32


Sensory and Motor Strips

  • Contralateral control

  • Amount of cortex related to abilities not size of body area

  • Sensory and motor side by side


Visual Areas

KW 8-17


Visual cortex responds

  • Functional MRI scan of the visual cortex activated by light shown in the subject’s eyes`


Auditory Areas

KW 9-12


Broca’s area

Broca’s located next to

motor strip area for face

(light blue)

Broca’s area

KW 9-17


Carl Wernicke

  • 1848-1904

  • Born in Poland

  • Educated in Germany

  • Psychiatry and neurology

  • Studies on receptive aphasia in 1874

  • Wernicke’s area in temporal lobe


Wernicke’s area

  • Patient unable to comprehend commands

  • Able to speak but speech lacked meaning

  • Wernicke’s area next to auditory area on temporal lobe


Thought to Spoken Word

KW 9-17


Prefrontal Lobes

Frontal lobes

Area just behind the forehead


Prefrontal Cortex

KW 11-16


Prefrontal Cortex and Limbic System

KW 11-15


Limbic and Frontal Lobes

Limbic system and fontal lobes interact to control behavior

KW 11-15


Egas Moniz

  • 1875-1955

  • Portuguese neurologist and politician

  • Developed angiogram to visualize blood supply to brain

  • Frontal lobe surgery

  • Nobel prize in 1949


Lobotomy

  • First lobotomy in US preformed in 1937 by Walter Freeman

  • Calming effect

  • Less anxious

  • Lack of care and concern

  • Loss of motivation

KW 11-24


Phineas Gage


Gage’s rock drilling


Gage Recreated

  • New imaging techniques allow us to see how rod passed through Gage’s frontal lobes.

KW 1-5


Visiting Gage Site

For directions, visit Gage website at

www.hbs.deakin.edu.au/gagepage/pgage.htm  


PET Scanner

KW 9-20


PET Scan Images

KW 9-21


That’s all folks.


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