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Interest Grabber. Section 4-1. Local Conditions. How would you describe your climate, or the average, year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation where you live? Does your area receive a great deal of precipitation—rain and snow—or is your area very dry?.

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Local conditions

Interest Grabber

Section 4-1

Local Conditions

  • How would you describe your climate, or the average, year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation where you live? Does your area receive a great deal of precipitation—rain and snow—or is your area very dry?


Interest Grabber continued

Section 4-1

  • 1. When does the area in which you live experience the lowest temperatures? Does the temperature ever get below freezing? If so, how often does this occur?

  • 2. When does the area in which you live have the highest temperatures? About how high is the highest temperature?

  • 3. How often does it rain where you live? Is one season rainier than the others?

  • 4. Does it ever snow where you live? If so, what is the heaviest snowfall you can remember?

  • 5. What are two factors that may affect climate?


Section Outline

Section 4-1

  • 4–1 The Role of Climate

    A. What Is Climate?

    B. The Greenhouse Effect

    C. The Effect of Latitude on Climate

    D. Heat Transport in the Biosphere


The Greenhouse Effect

Section 4-1

Sunlight

Some heat

escapes

into space

Greenhouse

gases trap

some heat

Atmosphere

Earth’s surface


Figures 4-1 and 4-2 Heating of the Earth’s Surface and Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4-1

Greenhouse Effect

Different Latitudes

90°N North Pole

Sunlight

Sunlight

66.5°N

Arctic circle

Some heat

escapes

into space

Sunlight

Tropic of Cancer

23.5°N

Equator

Most direct sunlight

Greenhouse

gases trap

some heat

Tropic of Capricorn

23.5°S

Sunlight

Atmosphere

Arctic circle

66.5°S

Sunlight

Earth’s surface

90°S South Pole


Fitting in

Interest Grabber Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4-2

Fitting In

  • Organisms not only live together in ecological communities, but they also constantly interact with one another. These interactions, which include predation and competition, help shape the ecosystem in which they live.

  • 1. Based on your own experiences, define predation. Give one example of predation.

  • 2. Based on your own experiences, define competition. Give one example of competition.


Section Outline Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4-2

  • 4–2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?

    A. Biotic and Abiotic Factors

    B. The Niche

    C. Community Interactions

    1. Competition

    2. Predation

    3. Symbiosis

    D. Ecological Succession

    1. Primary Succession

    2. Secondary Succession

    3. Succession in a Marine Ecosystem


Abiotic and Biotic Factors Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4-2

Abiotic Factors

Biotic Factors

ECOSYSTEM


Abiotic and Biotic Factors Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4-2

Abiotic Factors

Biotic Factors

ECOSYSTEM


Figure 4-5 Three Species of Warblers and Their Niches Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4-2

Cape May Warbler

Feeds at the tips of branches

near the top of the tree

Bay-Breasted Warbler

Feeds in the middle

part of the tree

Yellow-Rumped Warbler

Feeds in the lower part of the tree and

at the bases of the middle branches

Spruce tree


Who s there

Interest Grabber Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4-3

Who’s There?

  • If you have ever been to a zoo or a botanical garden, you may have noticed that the signs that identify the animals or plants also identify the part of the world where these organisms are found. Different kinds of animals and plants are found in different parts of the world.


Interest Grabber Some Factors That Affect Climatecontinued

Section 4-3

  • 1. Describe the climate where you live.

  • 2. What types of plant and animal life are found in your area? Describe a few of the major characteristics of these organisms.

  • 3. Suppose that you had to move to an area with a climate that was very different from the climate you now live in. How would the plant and animal life in this new area be different from the plant and animal life where you live now?


Section Outline Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4-3

  • 4–3 Biomes

    A. Biomes and Climate

    B. The Major Biomes

    C. Other Land Areas

    1. Mountain Ranges

    2. Polar Ice Caps


Compare/Contrast Table Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4-3


Figure 4-11 The World’s Major Land Biomes Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4-3

Temperate grassland

Tropical rain forest

Temperate forest

Tundra

Northwestern

coniferous forest

Mountains and

ice caps

Tropical dry forest

Desert

Temperate woodland

and shrubland

Tropical savanna

Boreal forest

(Taiga)


Ride the waves

Interest Grabber Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4-4

Ride the Waves

  • The marine ecosystem that is exposed to regular and extreme changes in

  • its surroundings is the intertidal zone. During high tide, the intertidal zone

  • is covered by sea water. During low tide, this area is exposed to air, sunlight, and heat.


Interest Grabber Some Factors That Affect Climatecontinued

Section 4-4

  • 1. What types of organisms would you expect to find living in the intertidal zone?

  • 2. What characteristics do you think these organisms have that enable them to live in this zone?

  • 3. What effect do waves have on the intertidal zone?


Section Outline Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4-4

  • 4–4 Aquatic Ecosystems

    A. Freshwater Ecosystems

    1. Flowing-Water Ecosystems

    2. Standing-Water Ecosystems

    3. Freshwater Wetlands

    B. Estuaries

    C. Marine Ecosystems

    1. Intertidal Zone

    2. Coastal Ocean

    3. Coral Reefs

    4. Open Ocean

    5. Benthic Zone


The shore is lined with grasses Some Factors That Affect Climate

that provide shelter and nesting

places for birds and other

organisms.

Frogs lay eggs in the shallow

water near shore.The eggs

hatch in the water as tadpoles

and move to the land as adults.

The roots of water lilies

cling to the pond bottom,

while their leaves, on long

flexible stems, float on the

surface.

Plankton and the organisms that

feed on them live near the surface

where there is enough sunlight for

photosynthesis. Microscopic algae

are among the most important

producers.

Fish share the pond

with turtles and other

animals. Many of

them feed on insects

at the water’s edge.

The bottom of the pond is

inhabited by decomposers and

other organisms that feed on

particles drifting down from the

surface.

Freshwater Pond Ecosystem

Section 4-4

Spoonbill

Duck

Water

lilies

Frog

Dragonfly

Mosquito

larvae

Duckweed

Phytoplankton

Snail

Pickerel

Diving

beetle

Trout

Hydra

Crayfish

Benthic

crustaceans

Snail


Figure 4-17 Zones of a Marine Ecosystem Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4-4

land

Photic zone

200m

1000m

Coastal

ocean

4000m

Aphotic zone

Open

ocean

6000m

Ocean

trench

10,000m

Continental

shelf

Continental slope and

continental rise

Abyssal

plain


Video contents

Videos Some Factors That Affect Climate

Video Contents

  • Click a hyperlink to choose a video.

  • Earth’s Many Biomes, Part 1

  • Earth’s Many Biomes, Part 2


Video 1

Video 1 Some Factors That Affect Climate

Video 1

Earth’s Many Biomes, Part 1

  • Click the image to play the video segment.


Video 2

Video 2 Some Factors That Affect Climate

Video 2

Earth’s Many Biomes, Part 2

  • Click the image to play the video segment.


Internet

Go Online Some Factors That Affect Climate

Internet

  • Career links on forestry technicians

  • Interactive test

  • For links on climate and the greenhouse effect, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-2041.

  • For links on biomes, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-2043.

  • For links on aquatic ecosystems, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-2044.


Section 1 answers

Interest Grabber Answers Some Factors That Affect Climate

  • 1. When does the area in which you live experience the lowest temperatures? Does the temperature ever get below freezing? If so, how often does this occur?

  • 2. When does the area in which you live have the highest temperatures? About how high is the highest temperature?

  • 3. How often does it rain where you live? Is one season rainier than the others?

  • 4. Does it ever snow where you live? If so, what is the heaviest snowfall you can remember?

  • Question 1–4:Answers will vary depending on local conditions. If students have lived in a different part of the country, you may wish to have them contrast the climate in that area with the local climate.

  • 5. What are two factors that may affect climate?

  • Possible answers: latitude, wind, ocean currents, shape and elevation of land masses

Section 1 Answers


Section 2 answers

Interest Grabber Answers Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 2 Answers

  • 1. Based on your own experiences, define predation. Give one example of predation.

  • Predation is an interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism. Some examples of predation: a hawk captures and feeds on a rabbit; a cat captures and feeds on a mouse.

  • 2. Based on your own experiences, define competition. Give one example of competition.

  • Competition occurs when organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place at the same time. Some examples of competition: crop plants and weeds compete for food, water, and sunlight; wolves and foxes compete for the same food (rabbits).


Section 3 answers

Interest Grabber Answers Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 3 Answers

  • 1. Describe the climate where you live.

  • 2. What types of plant and animal life are found in your area? Describe a few of the major characteristics of these organisms.

  • Questions 1–2: Answers will vary depending on the part of the country in which students live.

  • 3. Suppose that you had to move to an area with a climate that was very different from the climate you now live in. How would the plant and animal life in this new area be different from the plant and animal life where you live now?

  • Sample answer: If the new climate were much colder, animals would probably have thicker fur. Plants would have shorter growing seasons and would produce seeds that could withstand the cold.


Section 4 answers

Interest Grabber Answers Some Factors That Affect Climate

Section 4 Answers

  • 1. What types of organisms would you expect to find living in the intertidal zone?

  • Students may say that plants and animals would be small.

  • 2. What characteristics do you think these organisms have that enable them to live in this zone?

  • Possible answer: Plants would have thick outer layers to resist drying during low tide. Animals would be able to burrow into the sand or have coverings that could hold in water.

  • 3. What effect do waves have on the intertidal zone?

  • Waves pound living things, causing them to bounce around, unless they have some means of staying attached to the sand or rocks on the bottom.


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