email@example.com. Black Holes : Most Energetic Explosions in the Universe after Big-Bang. Chang-Hwan Lee@. Motivation. Black Hole Binaries as possible sources of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae. Final Conclusion will be. Believe or Not.
Black Holes : Most Energetic Explosions in the Universe after Big-Bang
Black Hole Binaries
as possible sources of
Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae
Final Conclusionwill be
Believe or Not
Plan of Talk
Gamma-ray Burst ?
Duration: milli sec - min
1970s : Vela Satellite
1990s: CGRO, Beppo-SAX
2000s: HETE-II, Swift
Cosmological Diatance !
Two groups of GRBs
Main Topic of This Talk
Short-Hard Gamma-ray Burst : Colliding NS binaries
Very Important for Gravitational Waves
Science 308 (2005) 939
Long-duration GRBs: Afterglow
Host Galaxy Association
= Distance Estimation
(z=0.2: closest GRB/Afterglow)
Top 10 Scientific Achievement in 2003 [New York Times]
Nature 423 (2003), 843, 844, 847
What caused GRB/Supernova ?
Most-likely Black Holes
Callapsar: Asymmetric Explosion of a Massive Star Most-likely Rapid-Rotation
Hypernovae & Black Holes
Observed Black Hole Binaries
[ Soft X-ray Transients ]
Density of Neutron Star
All buildings in Busan
Theoretical Black Holes ?
Einstein’s General Relativity
Sun : r = 3 km
Earch : r = 9 mm
Light cannot escape !
Total Nonsense !?
Now we believe that black holes exist !
X-ray Observations (2002 Nobel Prize)
Nobel Prize 2002
1962, Sco X-1
67 years !
Solar X-ray ?
Cosmological X-ray Sources ?
T. R. Burnight
Solar X-ray Detect
Number of X-ray Sources
Sources of Strong X-ray in the Universe
X-ray emission by accretion
What is a black hole in real observation ?
Beyond Neutron Star
We call it a Black Hole !
Observed Black Holes
Center of a galaxy (M87)
Jet=100000 light year
Active Galactic Nuclei
3C 273, QSO
BHs in the center of most of AGN
Main topic of our research
Black Hole Binaries in our Galaxy
X-ray & Optical Telescopes
Oscillating Brightness (GRO J1655-40)
15 Black Hole Binaries observed
> 3000 active
black hole binaries
in our Galaxy
Black hole binaries! What’s going on?
Explosions from black holes?
m=2Msun ; MBH=6Msun
Nova Sco 94
[Xi/H]: logarithmic abundances relative to solar
Israelial et al. 1999, Nature
It’s impossible for normal stars!
Where did they come from?
Abundances in the secondary of Nova Sco
They had to come from black hole progenitor when it exploded.
Hypernova to explain the observations.
Nomoto et al.
Another evidence ?
System velocity (-106 km/s) :
Abrupt Mass Loss by Explosion
Hypernova Explosions from Rotating BH
Spinning BH (QPOs)
High Black Hole Mass ( > 5 Msun)
--- Maximum Neutron Star Mass < 2 Msun
Hypernovae in BH X-ray Binaries
We have seen it twice.
So, it happens Everywhere?
Nova Sco, V4641 Sgr
Q) How can we understand these observations ?
Goal : At the time BH Formation
High Mass Black Hole progenitor (20-40 Msolar)
No feedback to the iron core because already evolved
Mass gap between observed NS & BH ?
HMBH (5-10 Msun)
NS/LMBH (< 2 Msun)
HMBH Formation in Case C
Current 1915+105(108 Rsun)
At the time BH Formation
Preexplosion orbital period (days)
Reconstructed Black Hole Binaries at Birth
BH spin : 10000 /sec
Hypernovae & GRBs
Hypernovae & GRBs from Rotating BH
Gamma Ray Bursts from Black Hole Systems
Most likely BHs !
BH Binary is natural source of rapidly rotating black hole
Energy in Hypernovae = Energy in GRBs
BH Binaries -> Long Time Scale GRBs (> 2 sec)
Believe or Not
Nobel Prizes in Astro-particle Physics
1967: H.A. Bethe (CNO cycle)
1974: A. Hewish (discovery of Radio Pulsar)
1983: S. Chandrasekhar (works on WD, NS, BH)
1993: R. Hulse & J. Taylor (Binary Pulsar)
(Gravitational Wave Radiation)
2002: M. Koshiba & R. Giacconi
Neutrinos from SN 1987A, X-ray Satellite
All of them are related to Neutron Star & Black Holes because H.A. Bethe worked on Black Holes !!!
Why so many Nobel Prizes for NS & BH ?
Theory vs Observation:
Effect of Gravitational Wave Radiation
Complexity can be hide in the simple Physics of Neutron Star & Black Holes
Experiments & Satellites under construction
Japan Hadron Facility
GSI Heavy Ion Experiment (Germany)
LIGO, VIRGO, etc : gravitational wave detection
Swift, etc: Gamma Ray Burst
Why am I doing this ?
It’s a lot of fun !
Thanks for your attendance !