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[email protected] Black Holes : Most Energetic Explosions in the Universe after Big-Bang. Chang-Hwan Lee@. Motivation. Black Hole Binaries as possible sources of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae. Final Conclusion will be. Believe or Not.

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Motivation

Black Hole Binaries

as possible sources of

Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae


Final Conclusionwill be

Believe or Not

  • Association between Gamma-Ray Bursts and Supernova/Hypernova explosions are observed.

  • We have seen evidences of Hypernovae explosions in black hole binaries.

  • Ironically, Black Holes are the sources of the most energetic explosions in the Universe after Big Bang


Plan of Talk

  • Gamma-Ray Burst

  • Hypernovae from Soft X-ray Transients (SXTs: Black Hole Binaries)

  • Discovery of Mass-Period Relation in Black Hole Binaries



Gamma-Ray Burst

Duration: milli sec - min

1970s : Vela Satellite

1990s: CGRO, Beppo-SAX

2000s: HETE-II, Swift




Two groups of GRBs

  • Short Hard Gamma-ray Bursts:Duration time < 2 secNS-NS, NS-(Low-Mass)BH mergers

  • Long-duration Gamma-ray Bursts

Main Topic of This Talk


Short-Hard Gamma-ray Burst : Colliding NS binaries

Very Important for Gravitational Waves

Science 308 (2005) 939


Long-duration GRBs: Afterglow

Host Galaxy Association

= Distance Estimation



GRB/Supernova Association

GRB030329/Supernova Association

(z=0.2: closest GRB/Afterglow)

Top 10 Scientific Achievement in 2003 [New York Times]

Nature 423 (2003), 843, 844, 847

Afterglow

GRB980425 SN1998bw


What caused GRB/Supernova ?

Most-likely Black Holes

Callapsar: Asymmetric Explosion of a Massive Star Most-likely Rapid-Rotation


Hypernovae & Black Holes

Observed Black Hole Binaries

[ Soft X-ray Transients ]


Compact Stars

  • White Dwarf [M < 1.4 Msun; R=1000 km]

  • Neutron Star [M < 3 Msun; R < 15 km]

  • Black Holes

Density of Neutron Star

1 cm3

All buildings in Busan


Theoretical Black Holes ?

Einstein’s General Relativity

Sun : r = 3 km

Earch : r = 9 mm

Light cannot escape !

Total Nonsense !?


Now we believe that black holes exist !

X-ray Observations (2002 Nobel Prize)

  • First Observation 1962

  • First X-ray SatelliteUhuru (Dec. 1970)

  • ..

  • Current MissionsChandra (NASA) XMM-Newton (Europe)

  • Future Xeus (ESA), Constellation-X(NASA), etc

Chandra (NASA)


1962 Aerobee

Rocket Exp

X-ray Astronomy

1970s

ANS

uhuru

Vela-5b

Ariel-V

SAS-3

HEAO-1

HEAO-2

1980s

EXOSAT

Tenma

Ginga

1990s

ROSAT

ASCA

RXTE

SAX

Chandra

XMM-Newton


Nobel Prize 2002

1895, X-ray

Wilhelm Röntgen

1962, Sco X-1

Riccardo Giacconi

Earth Atmosphere

67 years !

1930s

Theorist’s

Solar X-ray ?

1950s

Cosmological X-ray Sources ?

1948년

T. R. Burnight

Solar X-ray Detect



Number of X-ray Sources

1970s

1990s

 1,000

 50,000


Sources of Strong X-ray in the Universe

X-ray emission by accretion

  • Neutron Stars [M < 3 MSun; R <15 km]

  • Black Holes

  • … …


What is a black hole in real observation ?

  • Souce of strong X-ray emission

  • X-ray emission region is very small

  • No stable star exists with given mass & size

Beyond Neutron Star

We call it a Black Hole !


Observed Black Holes

  • Center of galaxies [106-109 Msun]

  • Black Hole Binaries (Soft X-ray Transients )


Center of a galaxy (M87)

Jet=100000 light year


Active Galactic Nuclei

3C 273, QSO

BHs in the center of most of AGN


Main topic of our research

Black Hole Binaries in our Galaxy

Galactic Disk

XTE J1118+480


X-ray & Optical Telescopes

Oscillating Brightness (GRO J1655-40)


15 Black Hole Binaries observed

> 3000 active

black hole binaries

in our Galaxy


Black hole binaries! What’s going on?

Explosions from black holes?


m=2Msun ; MBH=6Msun

Nova Sco 94

[Xi/H]: logarithmic abundances relative to solar

Israelial et al. 1999, Nature

It’s impossible for normal stars!

Where did they come from?


Abundances in the secondary of Nova Sco

They had to come from black hole progenitor when it exploded.

Hypernova to explain the observations.

Nomoto et al.


Another evidence ?

C.M.

System velocity (-106 km/s) :

Abrupt Mass Loss by Explosion

Mg,Si,S,…


Hypernova Explosions from Rotating BH

Spinning BH (QPOs)

High Black Hole Mass ( > 5 Msun)

--- Maximum Neutron Star Mass < 2 Msun


Hypernovae in BH X-ray Binaries

We have seen it twice.

So, it happens Everywhere?

Nova Sco, V4641 Sgr



  • Phase I

Goal : At the time BH Formation

  • Phase II

  • Evolution of Donor Star

  • Current Observation


High Mass Black Hole progenitor (20-40 Msolar)

  • Bigger star evolves fast !

  • High Mass Black Hole is formed when the separation is large (meet at supergiant stage)

  • NS/LMBH is formed when the separation is relatively small (meet at/before red giant stage)


C

NS/LMBH

HMBH

B

No feedback to the iron core because already evolved

A


Mass gap between observed NS & BH ?

HMBH (5-10 Msun)

NS/LMBH (< 2 Msun)


NS LMBH

HMBH Formation in Case C

HMBH

Phase II

Current 1915+105(108 Rsun)


At the time BH Formation

  • Kerr parameter

Preexplosion orbital period (days)


Reconstructed Black Hole Binaries at Birth

BH spin : 10000 /sec

Hypernovae & GRBs


Hypernovae & GRBs from Rotating BH

  • BH binaries can produce rapidly rotating black hole

  • Rapidly rotating black hole can cause energetic explosions

  • Asymmetric Explosion


Gamma Ray Bursts from Black Hole Systems

  • Energy > 1051 ergs

  • Rinit = O(100 km)

  • M < 30 Msun

  • dT = ms – min

  • ……

Most likely BHs !

BH Binary is natural source of rapidly rotating black hole

Energy in Hypernovae = Energy in GRBs

BH Binaries -> Long Time Scale GRBs (> 2 sec)


Final Conclusion

Believe or Not

  • Association between Gamma-Ray Bursts and Supernova explosions are observed.

  • We have seen evidences of Hypernovae explosions in black hole binaries.

  • Ironically, Black Holes are the sources of the most energetic explosions in the Universe after Big Bang


Nobel Prizes in Astro-particle Physics

1967: H.A. Bethe (CNO cycle)

1974: A. Hewish (discovery of Radio Pulsar)

1983: S. Chandrasekhar (works on WD, NS, BH)

1993: R. Hulse & J. Taylor (Binary Pulsar)

(Gravitational Wave Radiation)

2002: M. Koshiba & R. Giacconi

Neutrinos from SN 1987A, X-ray Satellite

All of them are related to Neutron Star & Black Holes because H.A. Bethe worked on Black Holes !!!


Why so many Nobel Prizes for NS & BH ?

Theory vs Observation:

Effect of Gravitational Wave Radiation

Complexity can be hide in the simple Physics of Neutron Star & Black Holes


Future Prospects

Experiments & Satellites under construction

Japan Hadron Facility

GSI Heavy Ion Experiment (Germany)

LIGO, VIRGO, etc : gravitational wave detection

Swift, etc: Gamma Ray Burst

Constellation-X, …….


Why am I doing this ?

It’s a lot of fun !

Thanks for your attendance !


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