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Chapter. Economic Resources and Systems. 2. pp. 18-33. Learning Objectives. After completing this chapter, you’ll be able to:. Define scarcity. List the four factors of production. continued. Learning Objectives. After completing this chapter, you’ll be able to:.

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Chapter

Economic Resources

and Systems

2

pp. 18-33


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Learning Objectives

After completing this chapter, you’ll be able to:

  • Define scarcity.

  • List the four factors of production.

continued


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Learning Objectives

After completing this chapter, you’ll be able to:

  • Identify the differences between market and command economies.

  • Explain why most countries prefer a mixed economy.


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Why It’s Important

Understanding economic resources and economic systems is essential to lessening economic problems.


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Key Words

scarcity

factors of production

natural resources

human resources

capital resources

entrepreneurial resources

economics

continued


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Key Words

market economy

demand

supply

equilibrium price

command economy

mixed economy


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Factors of Production

A shortage of resources is called scarcity.

A basic economic problem for any society is how to manage its resources.


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Factors of Production

To meet the wants and needs of its people, a society must produce goods and services.

The means to produce them are called economic resources, or factors of production.


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Figure

2.1

YOUR ECONOMIC REALITY AT A GLANCE

The average American spends $7 a day on food. People spend less than half of that money on home-cooked meals. Recreate the table below. Insert a check mark in the appropriate square based on your eating experience in one week.

How do your choices influence your economic situation?


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Natural Resources

The raw materials found in nature are called natural resources.

Natural resources become factors of production when we use them to produce goods.


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Natural Resources

The economy of many countries is based on their natural resources.


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Natural Resources

Some resources, like wheat and cattle, are renewable. They can be reproduced.

Other resources are limited, or nonrenewable, like coal, iron, and oil.


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Natural Resources

The amount of natural resources available to a society has a direct effect on its economy.


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Human Resources

The knowledge, efforts, and skills people bring to their work are called human resources, or labor.


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Human Resources

Labor can be skilled or unskilled, physical or intellectual.

One of the biggest problems facing many nations today is not a shortage of labor but a shortage of skilled labor.


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Capital Resources

Capital resources are the things used to produce goods and services, like buildings, materials, and equipment.


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Capital Resources

As the wants and needs of people change, so do the needs for capital resources.


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Entrepreneurial Resources

Meeting the changing wants and needs of people requires entrepreneurial resources.


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Entrepreneurial Resources

Entrepreneurs improve on ways to use resources, or create and produce new ones.

A key to dealing with scarcity is to develop new resources and technologies.


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Fast Review

  • What is scarcity?

  • What are the four factors of production?

continued


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Fast Review

  • What are some examples of capital resources?


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Making Decisions

About Production

No society has enough productive resources available to produce everything people want.

Every society must, therefore, make choices.


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Basic Economic Questions

Rules and regulations determine choices.


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Basic Economic Questions

A society makes economic choices by answering three economic questions:

  • What should be produced?

  • How should it be produced?

  • Who should share in what is

  • produced?


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What Should Be Produced?

Deciding to use a resource for one purpose means giving up the opportunity to use it for something else.


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How Should It Be Produced?

When a society decides what to produce, it must also address other types of questions, such as what methods will be used, how many people will work on the production, and what will be the quality of the items produced?


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How Should It Be Produced?

The answers to these questions depend on two factors.

One factor depends on how goods are to be produced.

Another important factor is the quantity of available resources.


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Who Should Share in

What Is Produced?

This question focuses on the concept that people can’t get everything that they want because society doesn’t have enough resources.


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Who Should Share in

What Is Produced?

In most societies, people can have as many goods and services as they can afford to buy.


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Who Should Share in

What Is Produced?

The question arises as to how a society determines the income earned by each individual in that society?


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Blood Is Thicker Than Oil

Occidental Petroleum Corp. is exploring for oil in Columbia. However, the U’wa people oppose oil exploration on the land they have lived on for thousands of years. For them, oil is the “blood of Mother Earth.”

continued


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Blood Is Thicker Than Oil

The problem is more complex because the Columbian government supports the oil production, which will bring development to the country.

continued


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Analyze

Who has the right to the land—the U’wa people, or the Columbian government?


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Fast Review

  • When a society chooses to use a resource for one purpose and gives up the opportunity to use it for some other purpose, what cost is involved?

continued


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Fast Review

  • What happens to production methods when a country discovers new ways to combine economic resources?

continued


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Fast Review

  • In most countries, what determines how many goods and services a person can buy?


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Types of Economic Systems

Economics studies how society chooses to use resources to produce and distribute goods and services for people’s consumption.


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Types of Economic Systems

To use its limited resources effectively, every nation needs an economic system.


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Types of Economic Systems

The primary goal of an economic system is to provide people with a minimum standard of living, or quality of life.


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Types of Economic Systems

The two basic and opposing economic systems that have been developed are:

  • Market economy

  • Command economy


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Market Economy

In a market economy economic decisions are made in the marketplace according to the laws of supply and demand.


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Market Economy

The Market and Prices

Price is the amount of money given or asked for when goods and services are bought or sold.


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Market Economy

The Market and Prices

Demand is the amount or quantity of goods and services that consumers are willing to buy at various prices.


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Market Economy

The Market and Prices

The higher the price, the fewer consumers will buy an item.

The lower the price, the more consumers will buy an item.


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Market Economy

The Market and Prices

Supply is the amount of goods and services that producers will provide at various prices.


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Market Economy

The Market and Prices

Demand and supply work together.

When the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied meet, the price is called the equilibrium price.


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Figure

2.2

VISUALIZING DEMAND AND SUPPLY

Remember these two points: (1) The demand curve always falls left to right on a graph, and (2) the supply curve always rises from left to right on the graph.

How many CDs will be demanded at $16 a piece?

How many CDs will be supplied at $18 a piece?


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Market Economy

The Market and Prices

A market economy is also called capitalism, or private enterprise.

In a capitalist system, resources are privately owned.


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Market Economy

The Market and Prices

In a capitalist system, the primary role of government is to support the marketplace by removing obstacles such as trade barriers.


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Market Economy

The Market’s Motivations

A market economy offers incentives, such as competition and the profit motive, to produce more.


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Market Economy

The Market’s Motivations

The constant demand for new goods and services encourages entrepreneurship.


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Market Economy

The Market’s Motivations

The problem with a market economy is that owners and producers reap the most rewards.


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Market Economy

The Market’s Motivations

Another problem with a market economy is that unskilled workers and older adults are often unable to afford basic needs such as health care.


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Market Economy

The Market’s Motivations

Another problem with a market economy is that a small number of large companies can join forces to control the supply of products and manipulate prices.


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Market Economy

The Market’s Motivations

The profit motive can become an end in itself rather than a means to improve the good for all.


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Command Economy

In a command economy a central authority makes the key economic decisions.

A command economy is also called a planned or managed economy.


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Command Economy

There are two types of command economies.

In a strong command economy, such as communism, the state makes all the economic decisions.


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Command Economy

In a moderate command economy, also called socialism, there is some form of private enterprise.


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Command Economy

The primary advantage of a command economy is that it guarantees everyone an equal standard of living.


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Command Economy

There are some disadvantages to a command economy.

Since the state provides all goods and services in a strong command economy, there is little choice of what to buy.


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Command Economy

Another disadvantage to the command economy is that there is no incentive for entrepreneurship when you can’t run your own business.


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Mixed Economy

Most nations have a mixed economy, a combination of a market and command economy.

The state takes care of people’s needs while the marketplace takes care of people’s wants.


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Graphic Organizer

Graphic Organizer

Basic Economic Questions

MARKET ECONOMY

Economic decisions are made in the marketplace

according to the laws of supply and demand.

MIXED

ECONOMY

What should

be produced?

How should it

be produced?

Who should

share in

what is

produced?

Combination market and command economy.

COMMAND ECONOMY

Government makes all key economic decisions.


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Fast Review

  • What is an economic system?

  • What is the difference between a market economy and a command economy?

continued


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Fast Review

  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of a command economy and a market economy?



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Some stoves use corn as a heating fuel. Based upon the cost savings, do you think the price of corn is high or low?

continued




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Business Building Blocks of corn affect the people?

Interpreting Line Graphs

Graphs are a quick and useful way to visually communicate information.

Line graphs often show change over a period of time.

continued


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Business Building Blocks of corn affect the people?

Interpreting Line Graphs

The left side of a graph is the vertical axis.

The bottom of the graph is the horizontal axis.

continued


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Business Building Blocks of corn affect the people?

Interpreting Line Graphs

Both axes display numbers and a label indicating what the numbers represent.

Dots on the graph show numerical information.

continued


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Business Building Blocks of corn affect the people?

Interpreting Line Graphs

When the dots on the graph are connected, they form a line whose location and direction reveals information about change through time.

continued


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Business Building Blocks of corn affect the people?

How to Interpret a Line Graph

  • Read the title of the graph

  • Read the label on each axis

  • Understand the numbers on each axis, including the interval used

continued


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Business Building Blocks of corn affect the people?

How to Interpret a Line Graph

  • Examine where the dots are located on the graph

  • Determine what the line(s) or curve(s) symbolize

continued


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Business Building Blocks of corn affect the people?

How to Interpret a Line Graph

  • Compare the line(s) on the graph to both axes to determine the graph’s meaning


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2 of corn affect the people?

End of Chapter

Economic Resources and Systems


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