Balancing chemical equations and types of chemical reactions
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Balancing Chemical Equations and Types of Chemical Reactions. Boon Chemistry. Objectives. I can compare and contrast different types of chemical reactions. I can define and identify a balanced chemical equation. I can balance simple chemical equations. Parts of a Chemical Reaction.

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Balancing chemical equations and types of chemical reactions

Balancing Chemical Equations and Types of Chemical Reactions

Boon Chemistry


Objectives

Objectives

  • I can compare and contrast different types of chemical reactions.

  • I can define and identify a balanced chemical equation.

  • I can balance simple chemical equations.


Parts of a chemical reaction

Parts of a Chemical Reaction

Cu (s) + 2 AgNO3 (aq) → Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 Ag (s)

Reactants

Products

Letters in parentheses show the state of matter.

Coefficients (numbers) in front of a chemical formula show “how many.”

The arrow separates the reactants and products.


Balancing a chemical reaction equation

Balancing a Chemical Reaction Equation

  • Atoms are not createdor destroyedduring a chemical reaction.

  • Scientist know that there must be the samenumber of atoms on each sideof the arrow.


Balancing chemical equations and types of chemical reactions

Is it balanced?

__Cu + __ AgNO3 → __Cu(NO3)2 + __ Ag

Cu = Cu =

Ag = Ag =

NO3 = NO3 =


Balancing a chemical reaction equation1

Balancing a Chemical Reaction Equation

  • To balance the chemical equation, you must add coefficientsto the different parts of the equation.

Cu (s) + 2 AgNO3 (aq) → Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 Ag (s)


Steps for balancing chemical reaction equations

Steps for Balancing Chemical Reaction Equations

  • Determine number of atoms for each element for the reactants and products separately.

  • Try to add coefficients to the equation to get the same number of atoms on each side.

  • Note: Coefficients multiply the atoms in the compound. Keep the compound formulas the same. Do not change subscripts.

  • Hint: Balance anything that is not hydrogen or oxygen first. Then balance hydrogen. Balance oxygen last.


Why do we balance chemical reactions

Why do we balance Chemical Reactions?

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ODf_sPexS2Q

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=92Mfric7JUc&feature=endscreen

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgU4nwdBrIA&feature=related

  • Focus Questions:

    • How are the two reactions the same? How are they different? Why?

    • If you wanted to do these reactions at home, what would you need to know?


Law of conservation of mass

+

H2

O2

H2O

(g)

(g)

(l)

O

O

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

H

H

Law of Conservation of Mass

  • Matter cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction

  • The number of atoms on the reactant side must equal the atoms of the products

Unbalanced!

Balanced!


Balanced chemical equations

Balanced Chemical Equations

  • A chemical equation is “balanced” when there are the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the arrow.

    NaHCO3 (s) + HC2H3O2 (aq) èNaC2H3O2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

    Is it balanced?


Is it balanced practice

Is it balanced? Practice

  • Determine the number of atoms of each element in the reactants and products. Then, state whether the equation is balanced.

  • P4 + O2 → P2O5

  • C3H8 + O2 → CO2 + H2O

  • Ca2Si + Cl2 → CaCl2 + SiCl4

  • Si + CO2 → SiC + SiO2

Not balanced.

Not balanced.

Not balanced.

Not balanced.


Balancing equations

coefficient

+

H2

O2

H2O

(g)

(g)

(l)

Balancing Equations

2

2

  • Only the coefficients can be changed!

H =

O =

2

4

H =

O =

2

4

2

1

2


Balancing tips

Balancing Tips

  • Always balance non-Oxygen’s & Hydrogen’s first (ex. Chlorine)

  • Then balance Hydrogens

  • Balance Oxygens Last


Balancing practice

Balancing Practice!

P4 + O2 → P2O5

P4 + 5 O2 → 2 P2O5

Ca2Si + Cl2 → CaCl2 + SiCl4

Ca2Si + 4 Cl2 → 2 CaCl2 + SiCl4

Si + CO2 → SiC + SiO2

2 Si + CO2 → SiC + SiO2

C3H8 + O2 → CO2 + H2O

C3H8 + 5 O2 → 3 CO2 + 4 H2O


Overview of major chemical reaction types

Overview of Major Chemical Reaction Types

  • Synthesis

  • Decomposition

  • Single-Replacement

  • Double-Replacement

  • Combustion


1 synthesis reactions

+

H2

O2

H2O

(g)

(g)

(l)

H

H

O

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

1. Synthesis Reactions

  • Two substances combine to make one

  • Synthesismeans “to make”

O

O


A b ab

A + B  AB

SYNTHESIS

Na + Cl2 NaCl


2 decomposition reactions

NH3

(l)

N2

+

H2

(g)

(g)

2. Decomposition Reactions

  • One substance breaks down into 2

  • Decompositionmeans “to break down” or “decay”

H

H

H

H

N

N

H

H


Ab a b

AB  A + B

Decomposition

NaCl  Na + Cl2


One element replaces another in a compound

one element replaces another in a compound

3. SINGLE REPLACEMENT

AB + C  AC + B


Single replacement reaction

Single Replacement Reaction


Ab c ac b or cb a

Single Replacement

AB + C  AC + B or CB + A

NaBr + Cl2 NaCl + Br2


4 double replacement

4. DOUBLE REPLACEMENT

Both elements in two compounds switch places

AB + CD  AD + CB


Balancing chemical equations and types of chemical reactions

Double Replacement

NaBr + Pb2S3 Na2S + PbBr3

K2SO4 + Ba(OH)2

KOH + BaSO4


5 combustion reactions

CH4

C2H4

+

+

O2

O2

CO2

CO2

+

+

H2O

H2O

C6H12O6

+

O2

CO2

+

H2O

5. Combustion Reactions

  • A hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide and water vapor

  • Combustionmeans to “burn in oxygen”


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