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RIMTA Green Marine Day. Nigel Calder. Some of what follows is crystal ball gazing I am no more qualified to do this than many others in this room And in any case, we are in a very volatile environment, so the only sure thing is that we will all be wrong!. Three huge drivers:.

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  • Some of what follows is crystal ball gazing

  • I am no more qualified to do this than many others in this room

  • And in any case, we are in a very volatile environment, so the only sure thing is that we will all be wrong!


Three huge drivers
Three huge drivers:

  • Fuel price hikes of 2008

    • How quickly will we forget?

    • Is this the long term writing on the wall?

  • The recession and drying up of credit

    • Despite a recovering economy, we cannot continue to spend more than we earn

  • Climate change consciousness

    • Finally catching up with the USA…

    • Cap and trade…

  • We need a mechanism to think about the long term impact of these things…


Concurrently innovation in design and construction
Concurrently, innovation in design and construction:

  • Resin infusion

  • Widespread adoption of carbon and other new materials

  • Fiber rigging

  • Lots of experimentation in design and engineering (e.g. America’s Cup)

  • Ever tightening regulations


A generational shift in systems
A generational shift in systems...

  • 1970’s and solid state revolution

  • Power distribution unchanged…

  • Networking, especially NMEA 2000

  • Distributed power

  • ‘Hybrid’ power generation and management

  • Hybrid propulsion

    Systems have been an Achilles heel…

    We have the potential for radical improvements in reliability and efficiency


Measuring efficiency specific fuel consumption sfc
Measuring efficiency: Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC):

SFC is the amount of fuel it takes to produce a kWh (kilowatt-hour) of energy

It is expressed as grams/kWh (g/kWh)

SFC is typically between 210 and 340 g/kWh

Peak efficiency (lowest SFC) generally occurs at, or close to, the full load at peak torque

On our D2-75 test engine, this is 230 g/kWh at 1500-1800 rpm, and at +/- 25 kW (about 80% load at these speeds)


Fuel maps

Intermittent duty to 55 kW

Continuous duty

Peak efficiency 230g/kWh


Battery charging from an alternator:

Peak efficiency @

+/- 800 g/kWh reflects

alternator and belt

losses and light load…


AC generator operation

36 kW at flywheel

27 kW, 60 Hz generator

29 kW at flywheel:

22 kW, 50 Hz generator

Intermittent duty

Continuous duty

5 kW generator output


How inefficiently
How inefficiently?

Efficiency relative to the peak efficiency

Courtesy Victron Energy

  • Consider the Onan 7 kW generator with a 16,000 BTU aircon unit:

  • When the aircon is running the generator is operating at +/- 58% of peak efficiency

  • When the aircon has cycled to ‘off’, the generator is operating at 0% of peak

  • efficiency, and in fact is still burning approximately 25% of the full load fuel

  • 3. With an aircon duty cycle of 30%, the generator is burning +/- 200% of the fuel it

  • would use if the aircon load could be met at peak performance


Propulsion efficiency

Intermittent duty to 55 kW

Continuous duty

Flex-O-Fold

Over propped

Volvo-Penta

Matched prop

Fixed

Under propped


There is a great deal of opportunity here to improve efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’


A case study
A case study: efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’

‘Typical’ 4-person household

Total daily load = 17 kWh


Options efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’(assuming 30% losses through the batteries and inverter):

Adapted from a table, courtesy Victron Energy


Batteries as the enabling technology
Batteries as the enabling technology: efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’

  • If a fossil fuel engine must be operated, only do so at peak efficiency

  • Use batteries as a ‘buffer’

  • This requires very high charge and discharge rates, and operation in a partial SOC

  • Broadly the same as the automotive world


A platform for
A platform for: efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’

  • Optimization of shorepower…

  • Integration of solar, wind, regeneration on sailboats, and other sources (such as fuel cells) as they become available

  • Modest improvement in propulsion efficiency

  • Dramatic improvement in house efficiency

  • Packaged systems with improved reliability


Systems as a microcosm of the challenges facing us
Systems as a microcosm of the challenges facing us: efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’

  • Modern technologies are multi-disciplinary:

    • mechanical, traditional electrical, power electronics, networking electronics, software...

  • Recreational marine world is a cottage industry

    • Even Brunswick and Beneteau are a loose alliance of individual companies

  • Unlike in automotive, no one company has the resources to master the new technologies


Hybrid propulsion as an example
Hybrid propulsion as an example: efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’


Agglomerating resources
Agglomerating resources: efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’

  • Commercial alliances

    • VW/ZF/Beneteau

  • Grant-based consortia

    • HYMAR

  • Cluster development

  • Statewide and national initiatives

    • MAREX, HISWA, FinnBoat…

    • MBBO


The hymar project
The HYMAR project: efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’

  • EU Framework Program (FP7)

  • DOE, ARPA-E, etc.

  • Creating the vision

  • Writing the proposal

  • Shepherding it through the process

  • Managing the project

  • The HYMAR players:

    • ICOMIA, Malo Yachts, Mastervolt, Steyr Motors, Bosch Engineering Group, Bruntons Propellers, INSEAN, EnerSys

    • IP issues

  • The first successful marine-based applicant…


Grant processes
Grant processes: efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’

  • Someone has to put up the money

  • There needs to be a vision for the program

  • There must be a mechanism for identifying projects for funding

  • Boatbuilders will need help:

    • Identifying opportunities

    • Building alliances

    • No access to professional writers!

  • Streamlining the process…


Creating the vision
Creating the vision: efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’

  • MTAs versus a new organization

  • Models we can use:

    • Marex, HISWA, FinnBoat, South Africa…

  • Strategic planning (use academia?)

  • Identifying core technologies and trends

  • Fostering alliances

  • Technical assistance

  • Looking outside the boatbuilding world

    • TPI’s windmill blades

    • Hodgden’s furniture business

    • Lyman Morse Technologies Division


Additional functions
Additional functions: efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’

  • Collective branding and marketing

  • Getting the media on board

  • International symposia

  • Raising technology levels and creating a career path

  • Protecting the waterfront

  • Statewide legislative initiatives

  • Developing an export culture

    The importance of volunteer leadership v bureaucracy


An exciting future
An exciting future: efficiency and assume the mantle of ‘green technologies’

  • Technological changes in construction and systems are creating more opportunity to reinvent our industry than at any time in the past 30 years

  • This is occurring at a time of great economic and cultural change; the ‘green’ label will become increasingly important

  • We need to form creative alliances, and reach out to other sectors, in order to operate effectively in this environment

  • Thos who position themselves correctly will emerge as the winners as the market regains strength


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