Vitaly a stepensky m3 student internal medicine teaching rounds october 27 2009
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Vitaly A. Stepensky, M3 Student Internal Medicine Teaching Rounds October 27, 2009. Overview For Today’s Talk. Influenza Biology Family, Structure and Life Cycle H1N1 Epidemiology Domestic and Global Emergence / Outbreaks Clinical Presentation Signs, Symptoms, Treatment

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Vitaly A. Stepensky, M3 Student Internal Medicine Teaching Rounds October 27, 2009

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Vitaly a stepensky m3 student internal medicine teaching rounds october 27 2009

Vitaly A. Stepensky, M3 Student

Internal Medicine Teaching Rounds

October 27, 2009


Overview for today s talk

Overview For Today’s Talk

  • Influenza Biology

    • Family, Structure and Life Cycle

  • H1N1 Epidemiology

    • Domestic and Global Emergence / Outbreaks

  • Clinical Presentation

    • Signs, Symptoms, Treatment

  • Questions Your Patients May Ask

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Influenza virus family

Influenza Virus Family

  • Influenza Avirus which causes influenza in birds and some mammals.

    • Strains of all subtypes of influenza A virus have been isolated from wild birds, although disease is uncommon. Occasionally viruses are transmitted from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry and this may cause an outbreak or give rise to human influenza pandemics.

  • Influenza B virus is almost exclusively a human pathogen, and is less common than influenza A.

    • The only other animal known to be susceptible to influenza B infection is the seal.

    • Mutates at a rate 2-3 times lower than type A and consequently is less genetically diverse, with only one influenza B serotype.

    • As a result of this lack of antigenic diversity, a degree of immunity to influenza B is usually acquired at an early age.

    • Reduced rate of antigenic change, combined with its limited host range (inhibiting cross species antigenic shift), ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur.

  • Influenza C virus infects humans and pigs, and can cause severe illness and local epidemics. However, influenza C is less common than the other types and usually seems to cause mild disease in children.

  • Influenza virus tend to be labile, but can survive several hours (8+) in mucus covered surfaces.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Influenza virus structure

Influenza Virus Structure

  • Member of Orthomyxovirus family.

  • Contain 7 to 8 segments of linear negative-sense single stranded RNA.

  • Virion can be spherical or filamentous in shape.

  • Approximately 500 surface of envelope proteins.

  • Hemagglutinin (H) is interposed irregularly by clusters of Neuraminidase (N), with a ratio of HA to NA of about 5 to 1.

    • Hemagglutinin is a lectin that mediates binding of the virus to target cells and entry of the viral genome into the target cell.

    • Neuraminidase is an enzyme involved in the release of progeny virus from infected cells, by cleaving sugars that bind the mature viral particles.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Influenza life cycle

Influenza Life Cycle

Uncoating

Inhibitors

siRNA

Neuraminidase

Inhibitors

Neumann G, Noda T, Kawaoka Y.Emergence and pandemic potential of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus. Nature. 2009 Jun 18;459(7249):931-9.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Swine flu epidemiology

Swine Flu Epidemiology

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Old h1n1 epidemiology

Old H1N1 Epidemiology

  • The last H1N1 pandemic was the “Spanish Flu”, which lasted occurred from 1918 to 1919.

  • Estimates show that 40 – 100 million people worldwide were killed.

    • has been described as "the greatest medical holocaust in history" and may have killed as many people as the Black Death.

  • The huge death toll was caused by an extremely high infection rate of up to 50% and the extreme severity of the symptoms.

    • majority of deaths were from bacterial pneumonia (secondary infection), but the virus also killed people directly, causing massive hemorrhages and edema in the lung.

  • The unusually severe disease killed between 2 and 20% of those infected, as opposed to the more usual flu epidemic mortality rate of 0.1%.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Pandemics of human influenza

Avian Flu

2006-08

H5N1

Swine Flu

2009

Pandemics of Human Influenza

Hong Kong Flu

1968

Asian Flu

1957

Old Hong Kong Flu

1900

Spanish Flu

1918

Palese P.Influenza: old and new threats

Nat Med. 2004 Dec;10(12 Suppl):S82-7.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Old h1n1 epidemiology1

Old H1N1 Epidemiology

  • Another unusual feature of this pandemic was that it mostly killed young adults, with 99% of pandemic influenza deaths occurring in people under 65, and more than half in young adults 20 to 40 years old.

    • unusual since influenza is normally most deadly to the very young (under age 2) and the very old (over age 70).

  • The total mortality of the 1918–1919 pandemic is not known, but it is estimated that up to 1% of the world's population was killed.

    • as many as 25 million may have been killed in the first 25 weeks.

    • HIV/AIDS is estimated to have killed 25 million in its first 25 years.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Impact of old h1n1 on life expectancy

Impact of Old H1N1 on Life Expectancy

Palese P.Influenza: old and new threats

Nat Med. 2004 Dec;10(12 Suppl):S82-7.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Old h1n1 and genetic shift

Old H1N1 and Genetic Shift

“When he compared the 1918 virus with today's human flu viruses, Dr. Taubenberger noticed that it had alterations in just 25 to 30 of the virus's 4,400 amino acids. Those few changes turned a bird virus into a killer than could spread from person to person.”

Hazard in Hunt for New Flu: Looking for Bugs in All the Wrong Places

The New York Times, Published: November 8, 2005

Vitaly A. Stepensky


The new h1n1 of 2009

The New H1N1 of 2009

Vitaly A. Stepensky


General statistics of new h1n1

General Statistics of New H1N1

  • H1N1 is a new influenza A virus that has never before circulated among humans. This virus is not related to previous or current human seasonal influenza viruses and is the result of novel reassortmant between human, avian and porcine influenza.

  • In April 2009 the first confirmed cases of H1N1 influenza were detected in San Diego and Imperial County, California and in Guadalupe County, Texas.

  • Since then 200,000+ confirmed cases and 2000+ deaths have been reported all over the world.

  • There has been 6000+ hospitalizations and 500+ confirmed cases of death in US alone.

  • Pandemic Phase 6 declared by World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2009.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Where did swine flu come from

Where Did Swine Flu Come From?

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Reassortment of the h1n1 strains

Reassortment of the H1N1 Strains

Neumann G, Noda T, Kawaoka Y.Emergence and pandemic potential of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus. Nature. 2009 Jun 18;459(7249):931-9.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Global incidence and mortality

Global Incidence and Mortality

http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/history_map/InfluenzaAH1N1_maps.html

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Global incidence and mortality1

Global Incidence and Mortality

http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/history_map/InfluenzaAH1N1_maps.html

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Global incidence of flu subtypes

Global Incidence of Flu Subtypes

http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/updates/international/map.htm

Vitaly A. Stepensky


H1n1 activity in the us

H1N1 Activity in the US

http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/updates/us/#iligraph

Vitaly A. Stepensky


H1n1 activity in the us1

H1N1 Activity in the US

http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/updates/us/#iligraph

Vitaly A. Stepensky


H1n1 until proven otherwise

H1N1 Until Proven Otherwise

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/index.htm#MS

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Influenza hospitalizations by age

Influenza Hospitalizations By Age

http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/qa.htm

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Influenza deaths by age

Influenza Deaths By Age

http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/qa.htm

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Pandemic of new h1n1

Pandemic of New H1N1

  • On June 11th, the World Health Organization raised its pandemic alert level to the phase 6, indicating widespread community transmission on at least two continents.

  • On October 23th, President Barack Obama declared a national emergency to deal with the rapid increase in illness from the H1N1 influenza virus.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Weekly visits for influenza like illness

Weekly Visits for Influenza Like Illness

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/index.htm#MS

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Pneumonia and influenza mortality

Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Signs and symptoms of new h1n1

Signs and Symptoms of New H1N1

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Signs and symptoms of new h1n11

Signs and Symptoms of New H1N1

  • Analysis of 642 cases identified in 41 states.

  • Median age of patients was 20 years, with a range of 3 months to 81 years

    • 40% of patients were between the ages of 10 to 18 years

  • Patients presented with

    • fever (94%)

    • cough (92%)

    • sore throat (66%)

    • diarrhea (25%) and vomiting (25%)

  • Hospitalization status was known for 399 patients, of whom 9% were hospitalized, with an age range of 19 months to 51 years. Many of the hospitalized patients had chronic medical conditions.

  • The virus was sensitive to both oseltamivir and zanamivir.

Dawood FS, Jain S, et al. Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Investigation Team, Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. N Engl J Med 2009;360(25):2605-2615.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Complications following influenza

Complications Following Influenza

  • Upper respiratory tract disease (sinusitis, otitis media, croup)

  • Lower respiratory tract disease (pneumonia, bronchiolitis, ARDS)

  • Cardiac (myocarditis, pericarditis)

  • Neurological (encephalopathy, encephalitis, seizures, status epilepticus)

  • Toxic shock syndrome

  • Secondary bacterial pneumonia with or without sepsis

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Caution in high risk groups

Caution In High Risk Groups

  • Individuals with the following conditions should contact their healthcare providers immediately if they experience flu-like symptoms (fever of at least 100 F, cough, sore throat, body aches, diarrhea, vomiting):

    • Pregnancy

    • Asthma

    • Heart Disease

    • Immuno-compromised

    • Diabetes

http://www.carle.org/pdf/Carle_H1N1_Flu_Testing.pdf

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Protecting yourself and reducing spread

Protecting Yourself and Reducing Spread

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Protecting yourself and reducing spread1

Protecting Yourself and Reducing Spread

  • Wash your hands often with soap and warm water, especially after a cough or sneeze. Wash for at least 20 seconds.

    • Chorus of “Sweet Caroline” (Neil Diamond)

    • Rap in the middle of the “Bohemian Rhapsody”

    • Lady MacBeth’s “Out Damned Spot” soliloquy

  • Alcohol-based hand wipes or gel sanitizers are also effective.

  • Get a goodnights sleep; 6-8 hours every night to keep your immune system healthy.

  • Keep hydrated each day to “flush toxins” maintain healthy mucous membranes.

  • Keep your body strong, nourished, and ready to fight infection. Eat well, including whole grains, vegetables, and vitamin-rich fruits (or a multi-vitamin).

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Benefits collaterally of h1n1

Benefits (Collaterally) of H1N1

  • Diarrheal diseases are the biggest killer of children under age 5 worldwide; in Bolivia, 30,000 children die each year from such illnesses.

  • Starting in April, sudsy cartoon hands were everywhere, promoting hand-washing on billboards, at soccer games, in classrooms and on TV.

  • “We see a steady 10% to 15% drop in the rate of incidence of acute diarrheal diseases in all age groups, compared with last year's numbers at this time.” says Dr. René Lenis, Bolivia's director of epidemiology.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Students residents if you feel sick

Students/Residents…If You Feel Sick

No rounds today.

  • Stay home if you’re sick for 7 days after your symptoms begin or until you’ve been symptom-free for 24 hours, whichever is longer.

    • Non-healthcare personnel may return to work/school 24 hours after their body temp returns to normal (98.6) without anti-pyretic medications.

Faking Out Attendings

  • Limit contact with other people as much as possible.

  • Rest, drink fluids and maintain nutrition.

  • Take anti-pyretic medications (Tylenol, Ibuprofen).

http://www.carle.org/pdf/Carle_H1N1_Flu_Testing.pdf

Vitaly A. Stepensky


When to seek medical help

When To Seek Medical Help

  • Emergency warning signs in adults:

    • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath

    • Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen

    • Sudden dizziness

    • Confusion

    • Severe or persistent vomiting

    • Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough

  • Emergency warning signs in children:

    • Fast breathing or trouble breathing

    • Bluish or gray skin color

    • Not drinking enough fluids

    • Severe or persistent vomiting

    • Not waking up or not interacting

    • Irritable, the child does not want to be held

    • Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough

http://www.carle.org/pdf/Carle_H1N1_Flu_Testing.pdf

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Influenza treatment options

Influenza Treatment Options

  • There are four different antiviral drugs that are licensed for use in the US for the treatment of influenza:

    • M2 Inhibitors (viral un-coating)

      • Amantadine (Symmetrel)

      • Rimantadine (Flumadine)

    • Neuraminidase Inhibitors

      • Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) – Oral

      • Zanamivir (Relenza) – Inhalant

  • Samples of 2009 H1N1 flu viruses have shown resistance to Amantidine and Rimantadine; thus Oseltamivir and Zanamivir are the recommended treatments.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Influenza treatment options1

Influenza Treatment Options

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Influenza treatment options2

Influenza Treatment Options

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Influenza treatment options3

Influenza Treatment Options

  • For pregnant patients:

    • Oseltamivir and Zanamivir are “Pregnancy Category C” medications.

    • Oseltamivir is preferred because of its systemic activity.

    • The drug of choice for chemoprophylaxis is less clear. Zanamivir may be preferable because of its limited systemic absorption.

  • For pre-exposure prophylaxis:

    • Oseltamivir should be given during the potential exposure period and continued for 10 days after the last known exposure to a person with H1N1 influenza.

  • For post-exposure prophylaxis:

    • Oseltamivir should be given for 10 days after the last known exposure.

      • Close contacts who are at high-risk for complications of influenza.

      • Health care personnel, public health workers, or first responders.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Who should get h1n1 vaccine

Who Should Get H1N1 Vaccine

  • When vaccine is first available, the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended the 2009 H1N1 vaccine for the following 5 target groups (approximately 159 million persons nationally):

    • Pregnant women.

    • Household and caregiver contacts of children younger than 6 months of age (e.g. parents, siblings, and daycare providers).

    • Health care and emergency medical services personnel.

    • Persons from 6 months through 24 years of age.

    • Persons aged 25 through 64 years who have medical conditions associated with a higher risk of influenza complications.

  • Once providers meet the demand for vaccine among persons in these initial target groups, vaccination is recommended for all persons 25 through 64 years of age.

  • Current studies indicate that the risk for infection among persons age 65 or older is less than the risk for younger age groups, thus once vaccine demand among younger age groups has been met, programs and providers should offer vaccination to people 65 or older.

http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/vaccination/public/vaccination_qa_pub.htm

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Questions from your patients

Questions From Your Patients

  • Will the seasonal flu vaccine also protect against the 2009 H1N1 flu?

    • The seasonal flu vaccine is not expected to protect against the 2009 H1N1 flu.

  • Will this vaccine be made differently than the seasonal influenza vaccine?

    • No. This vaccine will be made using the same processes and facilities that are used to make the currently licensed seasonal influenza vaccines.

  • Can the seasonal vaccine and the 2009 H1N1 vaccine be given at the same time?

    • Inactivated 2009 H1N1 vaccine can be administered at the same visit as any other vaccine.

    • Live 2009 H1N1 vaccine can be administered at the same visit as any other live or inactivated vaccine EXCEPT seasonal live attenuated influenza vaccine.

http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/vaccination/public/vaccination_qa_pub.htm

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Questions from your patients1

Questions From Your Patients

  • Why aren’t you testing me for H1N1?

    • Most people with flu symptoms do not need at test for 2009 H1N1 because the results do not change how you are treated.

  • But I need to know for certain if I have “the swine flu.”

    • Accurate lab tests (RT-PCR) are only available at certain labs and the tests can take several weeks. The test results will not change the treatment you receive.

  • Can I get sick from eating pork?

    • H1N1 is not a a food borne illness…it is a respiratory disease. All foods are safe to eat if properly prepared (160 F for pork) .

Vitaly A. Stepensky


Questions from your patients2

Questions From Your Patients

  • Can I get H1N1 from being around pigs / swine?

    • Yes, the H1N1 flu can spread via contact with infected pigs or their contaminated environment.

  • How long can an infected person spread H1N1 flu to others?

    • Similar to the seasonal flu, it is thought that a person is contagious from one day prior to their symptoms and for seven days after their symptoms begin.

  • How long can H1N1 live outside the body?

    • Studies have shown that the virus will survive for around 8 hours, at room temperature, on contaminated surfaces.

Vitaly A. Stepensky


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