Virtual machine technology
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Virtual Machine Technology. Dr. Gregor von Laszewski Dr. Lizhe Wang. Virtual machine concept. VM. VM. VM. VMM. Host resource. Why virtual machine?. Support multiple users On-demand computing environment creation & customization QoS guaranteed & performance isolation

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Virtual Machine Technology

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Virtual Machine Technology

Dr. Gregor von Laszewski

Dr. Lizhe Wang


Virtual machine concept

VM

VM

VM

VMM

Host resource


Why virtual machine?

  • Support multiple users

  • On-demand computing environment creation & customization

  • QoS guaranteed & performance isolation

  • High availability

  • Easy management

  • Access “root” privilege


CPU virtualization

  • Full virtualization

  • OS Assisted Virtualization or Paravirtualization

  • Hardware Assisted Virtualization


X86 architecture


Full Virtualization using Binary Translation


Paravirtualization(OS Assisted Virtualization)


Hardware Assisted Virtualization


Memory virtualization


Device and I/O Virtualization


Full virtualization: VMware workstation

  • Special container for the VM

    Virtual CPUs, memory, hard disk, network interfaces, USB ports and other common hardware components.

  • VMM is executed as an application of the host OS

  • Limited performance of the VMs

  • VM becomes independent from host configuration

  • Can be used on different host systems

  • VM is stored and runs in files

  • VMs contain native OS and are completely isolated


Full virtualization: VMware ESX server

  • Hypervisor directly running on the server

  • Requires supported hardware components

  • Special optimized pass-through drivers for dedicated hardware components

  • Better performance

  • Advanced management tools available

  • Near-native performance of the guest OS

  • Optimized for server consolidation


Paravirtualization: Xen

  • Different hardware components not fully emulated.

    It only organizes the usages->near-native performance

  • Layout of a Xen based system: Privileged host system(Dom0) and unprivileged guest systems (DomU)

  • DomU are working cooperatively

  • Guest and host OS has to be adapted to XEN (Kernel-Patch), but not the applications


Paravirtualization: Xen


Application scenario: a Grid cluster (1)


Application scenario: a Grid cluster (2)

  • for reasons of stability,different services like LDAP, the grid portals, should run on different machines

  • varying load on the different machines

    • Resources not fully exploited

    • “recycling” of older machines leads to a heterogeneous hardware structure

  • high administrative effort for installation and maintenance of the system

  • Virtualization of these machines leads to few machines to be maintained and to homogenous OS installations


Application scenario: a Grid cluster (3)

  • but what happens if the host machine dies?

  • Failure of: disks, motherboard, memory, power supply, …

    • All services which are hosted on this machine will be down until machine is restored or access to VM images possible

  • Need concepts of high availability and QoS for such scenarios where several services are hosted on one physical host


Application scenario: a Grid cluster (4)


Application scenario: a Grid cluster (5)

  • Storage of the VM file system in a high available and redundant SAN

  • Use host systems with redundant LAN, SAN and power connections

  • Migration on the fly in case of hardware problems or maintenance of one server

  • If insufficient resources are available on the other server, the service level of less critical services can be reduced for short times.

  • Automated tools for load balancing and migration in case of failures exist, e.g. for the VMware ESX server.

  • All services can be offered without or with only short interruption, perhaps at lower service level


Libvirt: The virtualization API

  • libvirt is:

    • A toolkit to interact with the virtualization capabilities of different Linux

    • Free software

    • C API

    • A set of bindings for common languages

    • CIM provider for the DMTF virtualization schema

  • libvirt supports:

    • Xen, QEMU, KVM, LXC, OpenVZ

    • Storage on IDE/SCSI/USB disks, FibreChannel, LVM, iSCSI, NFS and filesystems

  • libvirt provides:

    • Remote management using TLS encryption and x509 certificates

    • Remote management authenticating with Kerberos and SASL

    • Local access control using PolicyKit

    • Zero-conf discovery using Avahi multicast-DNS

    • Management of virtual machines, virtual networks and storage


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