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The Nixon Years: A Crisis of Authority. Mr. Ermer U.S. History Honors Miami Beach Senior High. The Youth Culture . “Liberation” The New Left Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) University of California at Berkeley The Free Speech Movement People’s Park The Counterculture

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the nixon years a crisis of authority

The Nixon Years: A Crisis of Authority

Mr. Ermer

U.S. History Honors

Miami Beach Senior High

the youth culture
The Youth Culture
  • “Liberation”
  • The New Left
    • Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
    • University of California at Berkeley
      • The Free Speech Movement
      • People’s Park
  • The Counterculture
    • Hippies & Haight-Ashbury
      • Communal Living
      • Rejection of traditional values
    • Drugs & “Free Sex”
  • Rock & Roll
    • The Beatles
mobilization of minorities
Mobilization of Minorities
  • Native Americans
    • Eisenhower’s “Termination”
      • Federal government attempts to move Native Americans into mainstream
      • Tribes deprived of legal status, remanded to the state governments, ended in 1958
    • Indian Civil Rights Movement/American Indian Movement (AIM)
      • Declaration of Indian Purpose fights anti-Native prejudice
      • Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968
      • United States v. Wheeler (1978) calls termination unconstitutional
      • Occupation movements
  • Latino Activism
    • Flood of new immigrants from Latin America after WWII
    • “Chicano Activism” and La Raza Unida
    • Cesar Chavez and migrant workers’ rights
feminism
Feminism
  • 1960s-70s: Feminism emerges as powerful force in American society
    • Kennedy’s President’s Commission on the Status of Women
      • Equal Pay Act
      • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • 1963: Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique
  • National Organization for Women (NOW)
  • 1972: Congress approves Equal Rights Amendment to Constitution
    • Is not ratified by the states, backlash against feminism
  • 1973: Roe v. Wade decision invalidates all laws prohibiting early term abortions
    • Based on the newly established “right to privacy” resulting from Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
nixonian foreign policy
Nixonian Foreign Policy
  • National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger dominates foreign policy of Nixon Administration
  • Belief in a “multi-polar” world, new international order
  • 1969: Nixon meets Soviet leaders in Helsinki, Finland for talks
    • Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I)
  • 1972: Nixon visits China and “opens” Chinese to trade
    • Helps Communist China’s government enter United Nations
  • Nixon Doctrine
    • Defend allies in Third World, aid development, but leave “basic responsibility” of the future of those “friends” to nations themselves
  • Six-Day War (1967)
    • Israel vs. Egypt, Syria, Jordan—Israel gains new territories
    • Palestinian refugee count increases in Jordan and Lebanon
    • Yom Kippur War (1973)
      • Arab Oil Embargo of 1973
      • United States presses Israel to accept ceasefire in order to keep Arab allies
the nixon years at home
The Nixon Years at Home
  • Defends the interests of the “Silent Majority”
  • Reduce federal “interference” in local affairs
    • Slowed the pace of school integration by bussing
  • Attempt to dismantle Great Society & New Frontier legislation
    • Abolishes Office of Economic Opportunity
    • Attempt to replace welfare system with Family Assistance Plan
      • Does not pass the Senate, welfare reform tabled
  • Election of 1972
    • Nixon vs. George McGovern (ultra-liberal democrat)
    • Nixon wins in landslide
nixon and the supreme court
Nixon and the Supreme Court
  • Warren Court of 1950s and 60s seen as too liberal
    • Roth v. United States (1957): limits states’ ability to ban pornography
    • Engle v. Vitale (1962): School prayer violates First Amendment
    • Gideon v. Wainwright (1963): right to a trial attorney
    • Escobedo v. Illinois (1964): right to an attorney before questioning
    • Miranda v. Arizona (1966): authorities must inform suspects of his rights
    • Baker v. Carr (1962): Apportioning of voting districts to ensure equality
  • Chief Justice Earl Warren retires in 1969, Nixon appoints conservative federal judge Warren Burger
    • Another justice spot opens, Senate rejects two conservative nominations
      • Nixon nominates Harry Blackmun, a moderate
    • Nixon also appoints two more justices, Lewis Powell and William Rehnquist
  • Burger Court not as conservative as Nixon hoped
    • Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Eduacation(1971): forced bussing
    • Furman v. Georgia (1972): strict test for capital punishment law
    • Roe v. Wade (1973)
  • More moderate decisions include Milliken v. Bradley (1974) and Bakke v. Board of Regents of California (1978)
nixon the economy
Nixon & the Economy
  • Funding 1960s social programs and Vietnam without raising taxes brings increased deficit spending—leads to inflation
    • Dollar begins to lose value relative to other currencies
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
    • After Arab Oil Embargo, OPEC raises price of oil by 400%
  • Deindustrialization
      • Industrial jobs being replaced by “knowledge based jobs”
  • Rising income inequality
  • Stagflation: rising cost of living with decreased economic performance
    • Nixon tries to tackle inflation by decreasing money supply, raising interest
    • Wage and price controls for federal agencies
    • Value of dollar continues to slide
watergate the presidency
Watergate & the Presidency
  • Changes to Presidency
    • Nixon seeks, sometimes illegally, to exercise power
  • June 17, 1972: seven men arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee office at the Watergate building
    • Washington Post connects Committee for the Reelection of the President
    • More illegalities, cover-up discovered
    • Senate calls for release of Oval Office Recording System tapes
      • “Executive Privilege”
      • “Saturday Night Massacre”
    • United States v. Richard M. Nixon, court rules tapes must be turned over
  • Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns for his own scandal
    • Replaced by Gerald Ford
  • August 8, 1974: Nixon resigns office, Ford sworn in as president
    • Ford pardons Nixon, “Our long national nightmare is over”
work on it
Work on it:
  • On page 442, write and answer questions 1-5
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