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The Nixon Years: A Crisis of Authority. Mr. Ermer U.S. History Honors Miami Beach Senior High. The Youth Culture . “Liberation” The New Left Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) University of California at Berkeley The Free Speech Movement People’s Park The Counterculture

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The nixon years a crisis of authority

The Nixon Years: A Crisis of Authority

Mr. Ermer

U.S. History Honors

Miami Beach Senior High

The youth culture
The Youth Culture

  • “Liberation”

  • The New Left

    • Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)

    • University of California at Berkeley

      • The Free Speech Movement

      • People’s Park

  • The Counterculture

    • Hippies & Haight-Ashbury

      • Communal Living

      • Rejection of traditional values

    • Drugs & “Free Sex”

  • Rock & Roll

    • The Beatles

Mobilization of minorities
Mobilization of Minorities

  • Native Americans

    • Eisenhower’s “Termination”

      • Federal government attempts to move Native Americans into mainstream

      • Tribes deprived of legal status, remanded to the state governments, ended in 1958

    • Indian Civil Rights Movement/American Indian Movement (AIM)

      • Declaration of Indian Purpose fights anti-Native prejudice

      • Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968

      • United States v. Wheeler (1978) calls termination unconstitutional

      • Occupation movements

  • Latino Activism

    • Flood of new immigrants from Latin America after WWII

    • “Chicano Activism” and La Raza Unida

    • Cesar Chavez and migrant workers’ rights


  • 1960s-70s: Feminism emerges as powerful force in American society

    • Kennedy’s President’s Commission on the Status of Women

      • Equal Pay Act

      • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

  • 1963: Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique

  • National Organization for Women (NOW)

  • 1972: Congress approves Equal Rights Amendment to Constitution

    • Is not ratified by the states, backlash against feminism

  • 1973: Roe v. Wade decision invalidates all laws prohibiting early term abortions

    • Based on the newly established “right to privacy” resulting from Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)

Nixonian foreign policy
Nixonian Foreign Policy

  • National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger dominates foreign policy of Nixon Administration

  • Belief in a “multi-polar” world, new international order

  • 1969: Nixon meets Soviet leaders in Helsinki, Finland for talks

    • Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I)

  • 1972: Nixon visits China and “opens” Chinese to trade

    • Helps Communist China’s government enter United Nations

  • Nixon Doctrine

    • Defend allies in Third World, aid development, but leave “basic responsibility” of the future of those “friends” to nations themselves

  • Six-Day War (1967)

    • Israel vs. Egypt, Syria, Jordan—Israel gains new territories

    • Palestinian refugee count increases in Jordan and Lebanon

    • Yom Kippur War (1973)

      • Arab Oil Embargo of 1973

      • United States presses Israel to accept ceasefire in order to keep Arab allies

The nixon years at home
The Nixon Years at Home

  • Defends the interests of the “Silent Majority”

  • Reduce federal “interference” in local affairs

    • Slowed the pace of school integration by bussing

  • Attempt to dismantle Great Society & New Frontier legislation

    • Abolishes Office of Economic Opportunity

    • Attempt to replace welfare system with Family Assistance Plan

      • Does not pass the Senate, welfare reform tabled

  • Election of 1972

    • Nixon vs. George McGovern (ultra-liberal democrat)

    • Nixon wins in landslide

Nixon and the supreme court
Nixon and the Supreme Court

  • Warren Court of 1950s and 60s seen as too liberal

    • Roth v. United States (1957): limits states’ ability to ban pornography

    • Engle v. Vitale (1962): School prayer violates First Amendment

    • Gideon v. Wainwright (1963): right to a trial attorney

    • Escobedo v. Illinois (1964): right to an attorney before questioning

    • Miranda v. Arizona (1966): authorities must inform suspects of his rights

    • Baker v. Carr (1962): Apportioning of voting districts to ensure equality

  • Chief Justice Earl Warren retires in 1969, Nixon appoints conservative federal judge Warren Burger

    • Another justice spot opens, Senate rejects two conservative nominations

      • Nixon nominates Harry Blackmun, a moderate

    • Nixon also appoints two more justices, Lewis Powell and William Rehnquist

  • Burger Court not as conservative as Nixon hoped

    • Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Eduacation(1971): forced bussing

    • Furman v. Georgia (1972): strict test for capital punishment law

    • Roe v. Wade (1973)

  • More moderate decisions include Milliken v. Bradley (1974) and Bakke v. Board of Regents of California (1978)

Nixon the economy
Nixon & the Economy

  • Funding 1960s social programs and Vietnam without raising taxes brings increased deficit spending—leads to inflation

    • Dollar begins to lose value relative to other currencies

  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

    • After Arab Oil Embargo, OPEC raises price of oil by 400%

  • Deindustrialization

    • Industrial jobs being replaced by “knowledge based jobs”

  • Rising income inequality

  • Stagflation: rising cost of living with decreased economic performance

    • Nixon tries to tackle inflation by decreasing money supply, raising interest

    • Wage and price controls for federal agencies

    • Value of dollar continues to slide

  • Watergate the presidency
    Watergate & the Presidency

    • Changes to Presidency

      • Nixon seeks, sometimes illegally, to exercise power

    • June 17, 1972: seven men arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee office at the Watergate building

      • Washington Post connects Committee for the Reelection of the President

      • More illegalities, cover-up discovered

      • Senate calls for release of Oval Office Recording System tapes

        • “Executive Privilege”

        • “Saturday Night Massacre”

      • United States v. Richard M. Nixon, court rules tapes must be turned over

    • Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns for his own scandal

      • Replaced by Gerald Ford

    • August 8, 1974: Nixon resigns office, Ford sworn in as president

      • Ford pardons Nixon, “Our long national nightmare is over”

    Work on it
    Work on it:

    • On page 442, write and answer questions 1-5