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Hybrid CMOS Sensors and Potential Application to Next Generation VHE Telescopes. Abe Falcone Penn State University in collaboration with Jamie Holder & Vladimir Vassiliev. The Basic Idea: Fibers + II +CMOS.

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hybrid cmos sensors and potential application to next generation vhe telescopes

Hybrid CMOS Sensors and Potential Application to Next Generation VHE Telescopes

Abe Falcone

Penn State University

in collaboration with Jamie Holder & Vladimir Vassiliev

the basic idea fibers ii cmos
The Basic Idea: Fibers + II +CMOS

System takes amplified pixel voltage to a fiber driver + fiber + gated image intensifier to a hybrid CMOS sensor

  • Relies on advances from past several years:
    • hybrid CMOS developed for fast (320 Mpix/sec) readout of select pixel regions
    • Fiber drivers and fibers have been developed to high standards for telecommunications (nsec response and <1% losses over >700 m)
    • Gated Image intensifiers are fast (2 nsec)

from Mirzoyan et al. 2000

some pros and cons
Some Pros and Cons

Advantages:

- Replace heavy/thick cables with light/thin fibers

- Low cost readout (roughly $20-50 per channel)

- Readout of entire camera is done in one unit, thus making maintenance easier

- Very low power requirements

- Embedded CMOS electronics and readout ASIC tunable to our task (Note: This could even lead to event driven readout, which could eliminate need for image intensifier!)

Disadvantages:

- expensive upfront engineering... BUT much of this can be "piggy-back" on other development efforts at PSU

- entire waveform is not digitized

ccds heritage
CCDs: Heritage
  • CCDs have been demonstrated on many existing X-ray missions (eg Chandra, XMM, Swift, Suzaku,...)
  • State of the art for:
    • low noise
    • high QE
    • moderate spectral resolution
    • excellent spatial resolution

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

x ray ccds
X-ray CCDs
  • Photon detection
    • Photoelectric absorption in silicon, N=E/3.68 eV
    • Photo-charge drifts in electric field to buried channel
    • Gates are clocked to move charge packets to readout

Front-Illuminated Back-Illuminated

Buried Channel

Thin oxide layer

Depleted Si

Gate structures

Depleted Si

Gate structures

Thin oxide layer

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

x ray ccds1

CTI

X-ray CCDs
  • Photon detection
    • Charge splits between adjacent pixels due to spreading of charge cloud
    • Charge transferred in “bucket brigade” fashion
    • During transfer across CCD surface, some charge is lost in defects (traps), resulting in further spreading of charge into trailing pixels

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

x ray ccds2
X-ray CCDs
  • CCD advantages:
    • “Fano-limited” energy resolution, σrms~ (0.1Ne)1/2
    • Large-format devices with good spatial resolution
    • High quantum efficiency
    • Very linear behavior
  • CCD Disadvantages:
    • Energy resolution is only moderate
    • High sensitivity to radiation damage
    • Entire frames must be read out --> only moderate speed
    • Photon pileup at high count rates
  • Future missions (JANUS, Con-X, EDGE, possible upcoming rockets, ...) call for high throughput and a need to overcome pile-up and radiation limitations

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

the future in space hybrid cmos
The Future in Space: Hybrid CMOS
  • Random-access pixel readouts
  • Silicon-based devices:
    • Similarities to CCDs:
      • Photoelectric absorption in silicon
      • Energy resolution comparable to CCDs
      • Large arrays like CCDs
    • Low sensitivity to radiation damage (because charge is not transferred across the device
    • High count rate capability (random access allows arbitrary window readout vs entire device readout for CCD)
    • On-chip integration of signal processing electronics

--> Significant effort will be put into enhancing their capabilities, thus benefiting potential VHE application

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

hybrid cmos detectors
Hybrid CMOS Detectors
  • Based on JWST technology, IR detectors
  • Back illuminated
  • random access readout
  • 1k x 1k, 2k x 2k, and 4k x 4k form factors
  • Detector array and readout array built separately, bump-bonded together
    • Allows separate optimization of

detector and readout

    • Readout electronics for each pixel
    • Optical blocking filter on detector
  • Very high speed (10 Mpixel/sec x 32 outputs), low power device suitable for future high-throughput X-ray missions

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

hybrid h1rg sensor
Hybrid H1RG sensor

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

hybrid cmos in lab
Hybrid CMOS in Lab
  • First-generation HCD device in PSU test camera
  • Designed for window readout mode
  • Readout speeds to 10 MHz

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

psu development facilities
PSU Development Facilities

47 m Long Cell vacuum chamber

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

hybrid cmos h1rg 125

A

1016x451, 18mm pixel array

With Filter

B

1016x565, 18mm pixel array

Without Filter

Hybrid CMOS H1RG-125

Optical image

55Fe X-ray image

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

hybrid cmos h1rg 1251
Hybrid CMOS H1RG-125

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

slide15
Future developments: on-chip CDS with high-speed, low-noise capacitive transimpedance amplifier:
  • Also working for on-chip event-driven readout

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

hybrid cmos detectors psu
Hybrid CMOS Detectors - PSU
  • Implement ASIC camera controller
  • Camera control becomes software problem

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Hybrid CMOS detectors are currently undergoing rapid growth for space-based instrumentation
  • This technology can also be exploited for ground based telescopes, including TeV arrays
  • At PSU, we are already developing this technology for other purposes --> minimal investment required to pursue VHE path
  • Current state of the art might achieve our goals cheaply and reliably; Future developments (speed, noise, event driven readout,...) could improve on this position
  • While traditional options may appear to be safer for building a telescope today, the potential of this technology should be explored for building a telescope tomorrow

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

slide18
The Swift X-Ray Telescope is just the latest example of the successful long-term hardware program in place at PSU

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

psu development facilities1
PSU Development Facilities

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

x ray ccds3
X-ray CCDs
  • X-ray CCDs are photon-counting detectors
  • Individual “events” must be extracted from bias level of CCD using short exposures

Hybrid CMOS Detectors and Camera Readout, Abe Falcone

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