Canada s growing autonomy
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Canada’s Growing Autonomy. (independent control of its own affairs). Canada’s Path to Autonomy. 1920’s – major steps toward full autonomy “complete control over its own affairs” Different path than the United States Peaceful vs. Violent World War I was a major turning point for Canada. .

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Canada’s Growing Autonomy

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Canada s growing autonomy

Canada’s Growing Autonomy

(independent control of its own affairs)


Canada s path to autonomy

Canada’s Path to Autonomy

  • 1920’s – major steps toward full autonomy

  • “complete control over its own affairs”

  • Different path than the United States

  • Peaceful vs. Violent

  • World War I was a major turning point for Canada.


During wwi

During WWI

  • Major contribution as a country

  • Key role in allied victories

  • New sense of national maturity

  • Canada had gained the right to sign the Treaty of Versailles as an independent nation.

  • Canada joined the League of Nations separate from Britain. (after WWI)

  • Canada was still a dominion of the British Empire though and Britain had the final say in foreign affairs.


New prime minister

New Prime Minister

  • In 1921, Mackenzie King became Prime Minister.

  • He was determined to push for Canadian autonomy.

  • A number of events over the next 10 years provided him with many opportunities.


1 the chanak affair 1922

(1) The Chanak Affair (1922)

  • Britain became involved in a conflict with Turkey at Chanak (small town that links the Aegean and Black Sea)

  • Turkey was on the losing side in WWI. They threatened to take control of the area.

  • Britain sent troops and ships and asked Canada for help if war developed.

  • PM King was convinced that Canadians did not want to be involved in a faraway European war again.


Canada s growing autonomy

  • Canada and the USA became more “isolationist” in the 1920’s and 30’s.

  • They did not want to become entangled in foreign conflict.

  • When Britain asked for help, the PM said Parliament would have to decide.

  • This was a huge change from WWI when Canada automatically joined.

  • PM King made it clear that Canada would determine its own foreign policy.

  • Britain’s interests were not always the same as Canada’s anymore.


Do i understand

Do I Understand?

  • Autonomy?

  • Canada vs. USA path to autonomy?

  • Canada’s maturity during/after WWI?

  • Who became Prime Minister?

  • Where Chanak is?

  • Why Britain was involved with Turkey?

  • What Parliament is?

  • The change that has occurred in determining foreign policy?


2 the halibut treaty 1923

(2) The Halibut Treaty (1923)

  • Canada/USA came to an agreement on the fishing season for halibut in the Northern Pacific.

  • This matter was of no direct concern to Britain.

  • But Britain had always signed treaties on Canada’s behalf.

  • PM King insisted that it be between Canada and the USA only.

  • Eventually Britain agreed and Canada won the right to sign treaties with a foreign country on their own.


3 the king byng crisis 1926

(3) The King-Byng Crisis 1926

  • King = PM Mackenzie King

  • Byng = Gov. Gen. Julian Byng

    vs.

    King Byng


Canada s growing autonomy

  • Canada had a minority government at the time.

  • PM King requested that another election be called early.

  • The only person who could grant this request was Byng. He refused it.

  • The PM accused Byng of ignoring the advice of the government.

  • The PM said that it was a breach of responsible government.

  • At the next Imperial Conference, PM King was determined to clarify the role of the Gov. Gen.


4 the balfour report 1926

(4) The Balfour Report 1926

  • At the next Imperial Conference….

  • PM King insisted that the agenda include discussions on…

  • - the powers of the dominions

  • - the relationship to each other

  • - the relationship with Britain


Canada s growing autonomy

  • Agreements were made and became known as the Balfour Report.

  • Dominions were declared “self-governing”

  • They were independent nations

  • They would no longer be called dominions of the B.E.

  • They agreed to remain part of the “Commonwealth of Nations”.

  • The Gov. Gen. would only be a representative of Britain and not an active agent.

  • Canada could deal directly with Britain and not through the Gov. Gen.


5 foreign embassies 1927 28

(5) Foreign Embassies 1927/28

  • In 1927, Canada opened its own embassy in the United States.

  • Vincent Massey became Canada’s first foreign diplomat.

  • In 1928, Canada opened embassies in France and Belgium.


6 statute of westminster 1931

(6) Statute of Westminster 1931

  • Dec 11th 1931

  • British Parliament passed the Statute of Westminster

  • This made the recommendations in the Balfour Report into law.

  • Canada was now completely self-governing.

  • Canada had its own laws. Britain could not make any laws for Canada.


Canada s growing autonomy

  • British parliament could no longer nullify laws in the Dominions.

  • Dominions could make their own extra-territorial laws.

  • British law no longer applied to the Dominions.


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