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Module 2 Research Strategies How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions -I-. Our intuition and common sense. Hindsight Bias we tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon Overconfidence

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Module 2

Research Strategies

How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions

-I-


Our intuition and common sense
Our intuition and common sense

  • Hindsight Bias

    • we tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it

    • the “I-knew-it-all-along”phenomenon

  • Overconfidence

    • we tend to think that we know more than we do

  • Perceiving order in random events

    • Our eagerness to make sense of the world

We overestimate our own intuition


Thinking critically with psychological science
Thinking Critically With Psychological Science

  • To believe with certainty, we must begin by doubting

  • Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions

    • examines assumptions

    • identifies hidden values

    • evaluates evidence

    • assesses conclusions


The scientific method
The Scientific Method

  • The Process of Research

    • Observing a phenomenon

    • Formulating an idea

    • Testing an idea

    • Generalizing or refining the idea


The scientific method1
The Scientific Method

  • Formulating an idea

    • Initial phase of research, in which observations, beliefs, information, and general knowledge lead to a new idea or a different way of thinking about some phenomenon

  • Testing an idea

    • Organizing countless observations into a theory

    • Formulating testable predictions: hypotheses

    • Testing the hypotheses

      • Using operational definitions of concepts

    • Generalizing or refining the idea


The scientific method2
The Scientific Method

  • Theory

    an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events.

    • Theory explains the underlying reason of the observed phenomenon

    • Produce hypotheses

  • Hypothesis

    a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory.


The scientific method3
The Scientific Method

Theory explains

the

underlying reason

WHY?


Testing hypotheses using operational definitions
Testing hypotheses using operational definitions

  • Operational Definition

    • a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables

    • Also enables other researchers to replicate

    • example-

      • intelligence may be operationally defined as the score obtained from the intelligence test measures

      • Psychological well-being can be operationally defined as high level of life satisfaction and low depression.

      • Academic success can be operationally defined as GPA.


The scientific method4
The Scientific Method

  • Replication

    • repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

    • usually with different participants in different situations

    • the research findings can be generalizable to other samples/situations.


Methods of psychology
Methods of psychology

  • Description (to describe)

  • Correlation (to predict)

  • Experimentation (to understand)


Methods of psychology1
Methods of psychology

  • To describe human and animal behavior and mental processes, psychologists conduct:

    • Case studies

    • Surveys

    • Observations (naturalistic/lab)


Description
Description

Case Study

  • observation technique in which on individual (or few incidences) are studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principals

    • Studies of brain damaged individuals

    • Piaget

  • Suggest hypotheses for further studies

  • Problems??

    • May be unrepresentative


Description1
Description

Survey

  • Looks at many cases with less depth.

  • Ask people to report thier behaviors or opinions.

  • Market surveys

  • Koç University student satisfaction survey

  • Problems??


Who do we survey
Who do we survey?

  • Usually question a representative, random sample of people seleced from a population.

    • Population

      • all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

    • Random Sample

      • a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion


How do we ask questions

If there is a serious fuel shortage this winter, do you think there should be a law requiring people to lower the heat in their homes, or do you oppose such a law?

Should be 39.4 %

Oppose 60.6 %

If there is a serious fuel shortage this winter, do you think there should be a law requiring people to lower the heat in their homes, or do you oppose such a law because it would be too difficult to enforce?

Should be 26.0 %

Oppose 74.0 %

How do we ask questions?


Description2
Description think there should be a law requiring people to lower the heat in their homes, or do you oppose such a law?

Naturalistic Observation

  • observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations (or in more controlled environments) without trying to manipulate and control the situation

  • Dating behaviors of Koç University students?

  • Problems?


Methods of psychology2
Methods think there should be a law requiring people to lower the heat in their homes, or do you oppose such a law? of psychology

2. To predict human and animal behavior and mental processes, psychologists conduct

- Correlational studies: the examination of the quantitative relationships between two or more variables

  • how does one behavior relate to the occurrence of another behavior?

  • if we know one behavior’s pattern can we then, in turn, predict the pattern of occurrence of another behavior?


Variable defined
Variable think there should be a law requiring people to lower the heat in their homes, or do you oppose such a law? Defined

  • Any characteristic or attribute that varies in amount and kind

    • Gender

    • Success

    • Weight, Height

    • Self-esteem

    • Reaction time in a learning experiment

    • Intelligence

    • Achievement motivation


Correlation
Correlation think there should be a law requiring people to lower the heat in their homes, or do you oppose such a law?

  • Correlation Coefficient

    • a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other

Indicates direction

of relationship

(positive or negative)

Correlation

coefficient

r = +.37

Indicates strength

of relationship

(0.00 to 1.00)


Correlation does not im p ly causation
Correlation think there should be a law requiring people to lower the heat in their homes, or do you oppose such a law? does not imply causation

Three Possible Cause-Effect Relationships

could cause

(1)

Low self-esteem

Depression

or

(2)

Depression

could cause

Low self-esteem

or

Low self-esteem

(3)

Distressing events

or biological

predisposition

could cause

and

Depression


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