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Module 2 Research Strategies How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions -I- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Module 2 Research Strategies How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions -I-. Our intuition and common sense. Hindsight Bias we tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon Overconfidence

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Module 2 Research Strategies How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions -I-

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Module 2

Research Strategies

How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions

-I-


Our intuition and common sense

  • Hindsight Bias

    • we tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it

    • the “I-knew-it-all-along”phenomenon

  • Overconfidence

    • we tend to think that we know more than we do

  • Perceiving order in random events

    • Our eagerness to make sense of the world

We overestimate our own intuition


Thinking Critically With Psychological Science

  • To believe with certainty, we must begin by doubting

  • Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions

    • examines assumptions

    • identifies hidden values

    • evaluates evidence

    • assesses conclusions


The Scientific Method

  • The Process of Research

    • Observing a phenomenon

    • Formulating an idea

    • Testing an idea

    • Generalizing or refining the idea


The Scientific Method

  • Formulating an idea

    • Initial phase of research, in which observations, beliefs, information, and general knowledge lead to a new idea or a different way of thinking about some phenomenon

  • Testing an idea

    • Organizing countless observations into a theory

    • Formulating testable predictions: hypotheses

    • Testing the hypotheses

      • Using operational definitions of concepts

    • Generalizing or refining the idea


The Scientific Method

  • Theory

    an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events.

    • Theory explains the underlying reason of the observed phenomenon

    • Produce hypotheses

  • Hypothesis

    a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory.


The Scientific Method

Theory explains

the

underlying reason

WHY?


Testing hypotheses using operational definitions

  • Operational Definition

    • a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables

    • Also enables other researchers to replicate

    • example-

      • intelligence may be operationally defined as the score obtained from the intelligence test measures

      • Psychological well-being can be operationally defined as high level of life satisfaction and low depression.

      • Academic success can be operationally defined as GPA.


The Scientific Method

  • Replication

    • repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

    • usually with different participants in different situations

    • the research findings can be generalizable to other samples/situations.


Methods of psychology

  • Description (to describe)

  • Correlation (to predict)

  • Experimentation (to understand)


Methods of psychology

  • To describe human and animal behavior and mental processes, psychologists conduct:

    • Case studies

    • Surveys

    • Observations (naturalistic/lab)


Description

Case Study

  • observation technique in which on individual (or few incidences) are studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principals

    • Studies of brain damaged individuals

    • Piaget

  • Suggest hypotheses for further studies

  • Problems??

    • May be unrepresentative


Description

Survey

  • Looks at many cases with less depth.

  • Ask people to report thier behaviors or opinions.

  • Market surveys

  • Koç University student satisfaction survey

  • Problems??


Who do we survey?

  • Usually question a representative, random sample of people seleced from a population.

    • Population

      • all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

    • Random Sample

      • a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion


If there is a serious fuel shortage this winter, do you think there should be a law requiring people to lower the heat in their homes, or do you oppose such a law?

Should be39.4 %

Oppose60.6 %

If there is a serious fuel shortage this winter, do you think there should be a law requiring people to lower the heat in their homes, or do you oppose such a law because it would be too difficult to enforce?

Should be26.0 %

Oppose74.0 %

How do we ask questions?


Description

Naturalistic Observation

  • observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations (or in more controlled environments) without trying to manipulate and control the situation

  • Dating behaviors of Koç University students?

  • Problems?


Methods of psychology

2. To predict human and animal behavior and mental processes, psychologists conduct

- Correlational studies: the examination of the quantitative relationships between two or more variables

  • how does one behavior relate to the occurrence of another behavior?

  • if we know one behavior’s pattern can we then, in turn, predict the pattern of occurrence of another behavior?


Variable Defined

  • Any characteristic or attribute that varies in amount and kind

    • Gender

    • Success

    • Weight, Height

    • Self-esteem

    • Reaction time in a learning experiment

    • Intelligence

    • Achievement motivation


Correlation

  • Correlation Coefficient

    • a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other

Indicates direction

of relationship

(positive or negative)

Correlation

coefficient

r = +.37

Indicates strength

of relationship

(0.00 to 1.00)


Correlation does not imply causation

Three Possible Cause-Effect Relationships

could cause

(1)

Low self-esteem

Depression

or

(2)

Depression

could cause

Low self-esteem

or

Low self-esteem

(3)

Distressing events

or biological

predisposition

could cause

and

Depression


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