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Experimentalists & Theoreticians. Nano & Fusion . Nano & Fusion (1) Wikipedia. Sir Humphry Davy(Chemistry 1778-1829) ● 1807— Discover several alkali and alkaline earth metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ba , B) by electrolysis using voltaic pile ● laughing gas(nitrous gas N 2 O)

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Experimentalists & Theoreticians

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Experimentalists theoreticians

Experimentalists & Theoreticians

Nano & Fusion


Experimentalists theoreticians

Nano & Fusion (1)Wikipedia

Sir Humphry Davy(Chemistry 1778-1829)

● 1807— Discover several alkali and alkaline earth metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ba, B) by electrolysis using voltaic pile

●laughing gas(nitrous gas N2O)

●First arc lamp, ●Davy lamp

Michael Faraday(Scientist, Chemist 1791-1867)

●electrochemistry, electromagnetism

●benzene, ● Bunsen burner with Davy

● metallic Au nanoparticle•••nanoscience

●environmental science


Experimentalists theoreticians

Nano & Fusion (2)

Robert Bunsen(Chemistry 1811-1899)

● Organometallic compd. almost died & lost sight in his right eye •••cacodyl (organo arsenic molecule) •••Me radical

● Bunsen cell battery(1841 Pt→ C)

●Photochemistry● Bunsen burner

Gustav Kirchhoff(Physics, Chemistry 1824-1887) ● Kirchhoff’ laws (circuit theory, thermodynamics) ● Spectroscopy•••black body radiation

● Bunsen-Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy


Experimentalists theoreticians

● 1860-61 Bunsen & Kirchhoff discovered Cs & Rb by spectrum analysis

Cs Forty tons of mineral water from Dürkheim was concentrated to isolate 17 g of deep blue element

They were the first recipients of the prestigious Davy Medal for their researches & discoveries in spectrum analysis


Experimentalists theoreticians

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) German physicist. He coined the term “black body 黒体輻射" radiation in 1862, and two different sets of concepts (one in circuit theory, and one in thermodynamics) are named "Kirchhoff's laws" after him; there is also a Kirchhoff's Law in thermochemistry.

ローベルト・ブンゼンとともに、分光学研究に取り組み、セシウムとルビジウムを発見した。フラウンホーファーが発見した太陽光スペクトルの暗線(フラウンホーファー線)がナトリウムのスペクトルと同じ位置に見られることを明らかにし、分光学的方法により太陽の構成元素を同定できることを示した。

The current entering any junction is equal to the current leaving that junction. i2 + i3 = i1 + i4


Experimentalists theoreticians

フラウンホーファー線は、一連のスペクトルで、ドイツの物理学者ヨゼフ・フォン・フラウンホーファーの名前に由来する。太陽光の可視光スペクトルのなかに暗線として観測された。

1802年、イギリスのウイリアム・ウォラストンが、太陽光のスペクトルのなかにいくつかの暗線の存在を報告した。1814年にフラウンホーファーは、ウォーラストンとは別に、暗線を発見し、系統的な研究を行い、570を超える暗線について波長を計測した。主要な線にAからKの記号をつけ、弱い線については別の記号をつけた。

グスタフ・キルヒホッフとローベルト・ブンゼンによって、それぞれの線が、太陽の上層に存在するいろいろな元素や地球の大気中の酸素などによって吸収されたスペクトルであることが示された。

他の恒星のドップラー効果によるフラウンホーファー線の波長のズレを調べることで、その恒星と太陽系との相対速度を知ることができる

Na D1, D2

He D3

O2 B, a


Experimentalists theoreticians

Nano & Fusion (3)

Charles(良男) J. Pedersen(Chemistry, 1904-1989)

● Synthesis of Crown ethers, ● Naked anion

Born in Pusan(釜山), Korea, Norwegian father

and Japanese mother •• International school in

Yokohama •• Univ. Dayton in Ohio (at 18) ••MIT ••DuPont(at 23). At 63(1967), he published two papers about crown ethers →At 83(1987) received Nobel Prize with Donald Cram and Jean-Marie Lehn. Supramolecule

Crown ether to detect Cs+ by

Cs+


Experimentalists theoreticians

Nano & Fusion (4)

Linus C. Pauling (1901–1994) (Chemist, Biochemist, Peace activist, Author, Educator)

Oregon Agricultural College (16).

●In his last two years at school, Pauling became aware of the work of Gilbert N. Lewis and Irving Langmuir on the electronic structure of atoms and their bonding to form molecules.→ ● Caltech (Crystallography) → ●Guggenheim Fellowship to study under A. Sommerfeld, N. Bohr, E. Schrödinger → ● Quantum chemistry

New concept: hybridization


Experimentalists theoreticians

The Nature of the Chemical Bond(1939)

1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

● Valence Bond Theory(Quantum chemistry)

● Biological Molecule

● Molecular Genetics

● Molecular Medicine ??

•Pauling is notable for the diversity of his interests: quantum mechanics, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, protein structure, molecular biology, and medicine. In all these fields, and especially on the boundaries between them, he made decisive contributions.


Experimentalists theoreticians

• Pauling's work on crystal structure contributed significantly to the prediction and elucidation of the structures of complex minerals and compounds.

• His discovery of the alpha helix and beta sheet is a fundamental foundation for the study of protein structure


Experimentalists theoreticians

L. Pauling as an educator

Williams Lipscomb (Boron Chemistry, Biochemistry) 1976

Lipscomb’s student R. Hoffman (Extended Hückel)

1981, T.A.Steitz, A. Yonath(Bio) 2009

Martin Karplus(Theory, Molecular dynamics) 2013

Pauling

Lipscomb

Karplus

Yonath

Hoffman

Steitz


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