Earth’s internal processes กระบวนการเปลี่ยนแปลง ภายในโลก.
..1915 Alfred Wegener
The origin of Continental and Oceans
..1960sAmerican geologist Harry H. Hess
San Andreas Fault
M = log A- log Ao
Deeper focus earthquakes occur in subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries. Shallow focus earthquakes occur along mid-ocean ridges and transform boundaries.
Figure #1 Mount St. Helens
Figure #2 Mt. Uluigalau Volcano, Fiji
Direction of Plate Movement
Active Volcano is over the Hot Spot
New rocks are continually being created due to tectonic forces.
Volcanic rocks(also called extrusive igneous rocks)
(Basalt) (Andesite) (Rhyolite)
Plutonic rocks(also called intrusive igneous rocks)
(>1 ) (Granite) (Diorite) (Gabbro)
- (Clastic Sedimentary Rock) (Sandstone) (Shale) (Conglomerate)
- (Regional metamorphism) (Foliation) (Gneiss) (Schist) (Slate)
- (Contact metamorphism) (Nonfoliation) (Marble) (Quartzite)