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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' GENERAL PHYSICS II Math. Edu. Program' - sook

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Presentation Transcript

Forces

Gravitation

Electric and magnetic forces

Elastic forces (Hooke’s Law)

Frictional forces: static and kinetic friction,

fluid resistance

Contact forces: normal forces and static friction

Tension and compression

Newton’s First Law

Every body continues in its state of rest, or ofuniform motion in a right line, unless it iscompelled to change that state by forcesimpressed upon it.

Reference Systems

Use coordinate system as a ‘reference frame’ to describe the position, velocity, and acceleration of objects.

Newton’s First Law

Newton’s First Law in relatively inertial referenceframes: If there is no net force impressed on anobject at rest in Frame 2, then there is also nonet force impressed on the object in Frame 1.

An object that is at rest in Frame 2 is moving at aconstant velocity in reference Frame 1.

Force Law: Gravitational Force near the Surface of the Earth

Near the surface of the earth, the gravitational interaction between a body and the earth is mutually attractive and has a magnitude of

where mgrav is the gravitational mass of the body and g is a positive constant.

Checkpoint Problem : Pushing Textbooks

Consider two textbooks that are resting one on top of the other. The lower book has M2and is resting on a nearly frictionless surface. The upper book has mass M1 < M2. Suppose the coefficient of static friction between the books is μs.

A horizontal force of magnitude F is applied to the lower book so that the two books move together without slipping. Identify all action-reaction pairs of forces in this problem and draw free-body force diagrams on each object.

Kinetic Friction

- The kinetic frictional force fk is proportional to the normal force, but independent of surface area of contact and the velocity.
- The magnitude of fkis
- where μkis the coefficients of friction.
- Direction of fk: opposes motion

Static Friction

Varies in direction and magnitude depending on applied forces :

Static friction is equal to it’s maximum value

Checkpoint Problem: Hooke’sLaw

- Consider a spring with negligible mass that has an unstretched length 8.8 cm. A body with mass 150 g is suspended from one end of the spring. The other end (the upper end) of the spring is fixed. After a series of oscillations has died down, the new stretched length of the spring is 9.8 cm. Assume that the spring satisfies Hooke’s Law when stretched. What is the spring constant?

Newton’s Second Law

- The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impresses, and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed,
- When multiple forces are acting,
- In Cartesian coordinates:

Concept of System: Reduction

- Modeling complicated interaction of objects by isolated asubset (possible one object) of the objects as the system
- Treat each object in the system as a point-like object
- Identify all forces that act on that object

Model – Point Mass with Forces

Newton’s Laws of Motion:

- Forces replace rest of universe, animism
- If ΣF = 0 then a = 0 inertial coordinate system
- ma = Σ F
- Forces generated in pairs by interactions

Model: Newton’s Laws of Motion

- System: Point mass with applied force
- Description of System:
- Objects: Point Mass
- State Variables: m, a(t), r(t)
- Agents: real forces on object
- Multiple Representations;

• Words, Force Diagrams, Equations

- Interactions:

• Force Laws: contact, spring, universalgravity, uniform gravity, drag.

- Law of Motion:

ΣF = ma

• Origin and Type of forces, Vectors

Newton’s Second Law: Strategy

- Treat each object in the system as a point-like object
- Identify all forces that act on that object, draw a free body diagram
- Apply Newton’s Second Law to each body
- Find relevant constraint equations
- Solve system of equations for quantities of interest

Worked Example: Pulley and Inclined Plane 1

- A block of mass m1, constrained to move along a plane inclined at angle ϕ to the horizontal, is connected via a massless inextensible rope that passes over a massless pulley to a bucket to which sand is slowly added. The coefficient of static friction is μs. Assume the gravitational constant is g. What is mass of the bucket and sand just before the block slips upward?

Worked Example: Pulley and Inclined Plane 2

- A block of mass m1, constrained to move along a plane inclined at angle ϕ to the horizontal, is connected via a massless inextensible rope that passes over a massless pulley to a second block of mass m2. Assume the block is sliding up the inclined plane. The coefficient of kinetic friction is μk. Assume the gravitational constant is g. Calculate the acceleration of the blocks.

Checkpoint Problem: TwoBlocks with Constraint

Two blocks 1 and 2 of mass m1and m2respectively are attached by a string wrapped around two pulleys as shown in the figure. Block 1 is accelerating to the right on a fricitonless surface. You may assume that the string is massless and inextensible and that the pulleys are massless. Find the accelerations of the blocks and the tension in the string connecting the blocks.

Chcekpoint Problem: Blocksand Pulleys on Table

- Two blocks rest on a frictionless horizontal surface. They are connected by 3 massless strings and 2 frictionless, massless pulleys as shown above. A force F is applied to block 1. What is the resulting acceleration of block 1?

Worked Example: velocitydependent force

- Consider an object of mass m released at time t = 0 with an initial x-component of velocity vx,0 =0. A force is acting on the object according to
- Find the velocity as a function of time.

Worked Example Solution: velocity dependent force

Technique: Separation of Variables: The acceleration is

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