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SS16: Opportunities in the Study of Ocean Particle Flux@. From ship-tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean; What we have observed in the past and what we shall observe in the future to better understand and model particle flux. Stemmann L., Guidi, L., Boss, E., Claustre, H. `

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From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

SS16: Opportunities in the Study of Ocean Particle Flux@

From ship-tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean;

What we have observed in the past and

what we shall observe in the future to better understand and model particle flux.

Stemmann L., Guidi, L., Boss, E., Claustre, H. `

UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR7093, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, 06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France}

School of Marine Sciences, 5706 Aubert Hall, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469-5706


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

Biological pump or Geochemical pump ?

CO2

N: Nutriment

P: Phytoplancton

Z: Zooplancton

D: Detritus

?

CO2


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

Biological pump or Geochemical pump ?

CO2

Advection, turbulence

CO2


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

Biological pump or Geochemical pump ?

CO2

Advection, turbulence

  • 4D Observation of individuals and particles

  • Ecosystem Realistic Simplification

CO2


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

Strong development of imaging systems and also their miniaturization for in situ monitoring

1) Laboratory instruments

FLOWCAM, ZOOSCAN, ...

2) In situ instruments used from ships

UVP, VPR, SIPPER, Underwater Digital Holocamera , ...

3) In situ instruments on autonomous vehicles

SOLOPC

Checkley et al., 2008

Benfield et al., 2007


Examples of psd and vertical flux from ship tethered imaging sensors

Examples of PSD and vertical flux from ship tethered imaging sensors

Lampitt et al., 1993, North Atl.

and then

Graham et al., 2000, Monterey Bay

Stemmann et al., 2000, Mediterranean Sea

Goldthwait et al., 2006, Monterey Bay

...

Hypothesis: DVM or diel cycle in upper turbulence

Short time scales

Long time scales

Stemmann et al., 2002

UVP3 in the Mediterranean Sea


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

Vertical patterns of particle size spectra at regional scales

Coast/ocean interactions

Gardner and Walsh, 1990, Gulf of Mexico,

McCave et al., 2001, North Atlantic

Stemmann et al., 2008

Mediterranean sea


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

Vertical patterns of particle size spectra at regional scales

Open sea

Iversen et al., 2011, Tropical Atlantic

Guidi et al., 2012, HOT

The Octopus eye


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

Examples of Global biogeography of mesopelagic macrozooplankton from ship tethered imaging sensor (UVP4)

(UVP5, see HydroptiC stand for details)

200 profils of the UVP4 (6 years of sampling)

50-1000m, no size measurments

Stemmann et al., 2008

1500 profiles UVP5

since 2008

  • Sarcodines : an important component of macrozooplankton community (<40%).

  • Definition of 9 provinces that fits Longhurst biogeochemical regions

(Romagnan et al., session 72)


Examples of psd and vertical flux from ship tethered imaging sensor uvp5 guidi et al session 58

Examples of PSD and vertical flux from ship tethered imaging sensor UVP5 (Guidi et al., session 58)

897 estimates of b

distributed over

34 provinces

combined with Sed. trap and Th. fluxes

2868 values of b

Global b:

-0.75

Global Sequestration: 0.37 Gt C year-1


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

Systems based on optics mounted on floats

NABE2008, Briggs et al., 2008

Monterey Bay, Petrik et al., 2013


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

What are the Opportunities in the Study of Ocean Particle Flux ?

  • Global network of observations

  • ARGO-> BIOARGO+vision

  • fixed stations + vision

  • cruises of opportunity

  • Oceanographic data center for QC and large diffusion

Particulate Organic Carbon

(size spectra)

D

  • Ecosystem monitoring

  • - Data assimilation in models for Carbone fluxes and marine ressources.

macro and mesoplankton (Taxa size spectra)

Z

P

Pico and microplankton

(taxa, size spectra)

N

CTD and geochemical data


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

What could Biogeochemical models represent ?

P

Qp

P2

P3

P2

P1

P1

Q

Z2

Z

Z1

D

N

Biomass (x)

B1

D

Stemmann and Boss (2012)


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

What could Biogeochemical models represent ?

P2

P3

P3

P1

Q

Z2

Z1

Qd

Size(x)

B1

N

D

N

size

Stemmann and Boss (2012)


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

150 ARGO floats, 17-22 February 2013

150 ARGO floats, 17-22 February 2023

Temperature (°C)

POC Vertical flux (mg C m-2 d-1)


Do we all agree

UVP

UVP

Do we all agree ?

Particle

ISIS

LOKI

Plankton

ZOOVIS

ISIS

SIPPER

LOPC

VPR

Then we are ready for a network

of octopus eyes.


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

THE KEY OF THE SUCCESS for such a network:

  • AGREED PROCEDURES (computer assisted recognition, intercalibration)

  • AGREED DATA MANAGEMENT

  • AGREED DATA DISTRIBUTION

  • AGREED MODELING FRAMEWORKS

  • SUMMER SCHOOLS FOR THE USERS

  • The BIOgeochemical particle/plankton community is getting to a sufficient maturity in using images.

  • These are propositions that we could discuss now building on the biogeochemical community experience


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

Thank you

BIOSOPE

Gabriel Gorsky

Marc Picheral

Pieter Vandromme, JB Romagnan, F. Roullier, Nicolas Mayot, Rizlaine IdAoud, Fabien Lombard ET tous les collègues

French programs: PROOF, PNEC, PICS

EC programs: EUROCEAN (FP6), SESAME(FP6), GROOM (FP7), JERICO (FP7)


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

How will we treat the imaging data for an operational monitoring program ?

Image acquisition (0-2000 m)

Image in situ analysis

(Size threshold)

Real time

Delayed time

Laboratories

all particles (non validated prediction), CTD, optic

Validation (Aggregates – Zooplankton)

International Data Bases

Particle size spectra

CTD

Zooplankton size spectra


From ship tethered to free drifting imaging systems in the ocean

REAL TIME, for example: UVP data format for ODV

MALINA cruise: 154 UVP profils (25-1800m), one PSD every 5 m, with CTD, Rosette, 8Mo

CAN BE SEND BY ARGO, IRIDIUM

METADATA: context

//<Creator>[email protected]</Creator>

//<CreateTime>2010-08-20T10:01:12</CreateTime>

//<Source>baseuvp5_malina2009</Source>

//<SourceLastModified>31-Jan-000T</SourceLastModified>

//<DataField>Ocean</DataField>

//<DataType>Profiles</DataType>

//<Method>Particle abundance and volume from the Underwater Vision Profiler. the ......</Method>

//<Owner1>Lars.stemmann[at]obs-vlfr.fr http://www.obs-vlfr.fr/LOV/ZooPart/Portal/ Laboratoire d'Oceanographie de Villefranche B.P. 28 Villefranche-Sur-Mer France +33 (0)4 93 76 38 11 +33 (0)4 93 76 38 34 http://www.obs-vlfr.fr/LOV/ZooPart/UVP/</Owner1>

Cruise:METAVAR:TEXT:20;Station:METAVAR:TEXT:20;Rawfilename:METAVAR:TEXT:20;UVPtype:METAVAR:TEXT:6;CTDrosettefilename:METAVAR:TEXT:40;yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:METAVAR:TEXT:40;Latitude [degrees_north]:METAVAR:DOUBLE;Longitude [degrees_east]:METAVAR:DOUBLE;Depth [m]:PRIMARYVAR:DOUBLE;Sampled volume[L];LPM (0.06-0.53mm)[#/L];LPM (0.53-1.06mm)[#/L];LPM (1.06-2.66mm)[#/L];LPM (0.06-2.66mm)[#/L];LPM biovolume (0.06-0.53mm)[ppm];LPM biovolume (0.53-1.06mm)[ppm];LPM biovolume (1.06-2.66mm)[ppm];LPM biovolume (0.06-2.66mm)[ppm];LPM (0.06-0.07mm)[#/L];LPM (0.07-0.09mm)[#/L];LPM (0.09-0.11mm)[#/L];LPM (0.11-0.14mm)[#/L];LPM (0.14-0.17mm)[#/L];LPM (0.17-0.21mm)[#/L];LPM (0.21-0.27mm)[#/L];........;LPM biovolume (4.22-5.32mm)[ppm];LPM biovolume (5.32-6.7mm)[ppm];LPM biovolume (6.7-8.44mm)[ppm];LPM biovolume (8.44-10.64mm)[ppm];LPM biovolume (10.64-13.4mm)[ppm];LPM biovolume (13.4-16.88mm)[ppm];LPM biovolume (16.88-21.27mm)[ppm];LPM biovolume (21.27-26.79mm)[ppm];Temp;Trans;Fluo;Sal;Dens;svan;N2;sigt;theta;sigthe;FreezT-;O2;pH;NO3;Par;SPar

malina2009;malina001;HDR20090718234959;uvp5;0902_001;2009-07-18

23:49:59;70.4808;-135.1083;5;79.56;405.8698;0.33937;0;406.2092;0.53393;0.054187;0;0.58812;0.000000;0.000000;255.417300;76.533434;38.800905;21.669180;7.302665;4.160382;1.458019;0.527903;0.226244;0.075415;0.037707;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.126479;0.085347;0.076972;0.076662;0.049646;0.053766;0.038764;0.026295;0.023097;0.014930;0.016160;0.000000;0.000000;0.0

METADATA: file content

DELAYED TIME:

adding 44000 images 300 Mo

ARGOS, IRIDIUM TRANSMISSION ?

Wait for a recovery of the instrument ?

DATA


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