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ROMANIAN EXPERIENCE IN TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION OF THE NPP OWNER/OPERATOR FOR UNIT 1 OF CERNAVODA NPP Dr. Ioan Rotaru TM /W S on Topical Issues on Infrastructure Development: Managing the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power

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ROMANIAN EXPERIENCE IN TRAINING AND

QUALIFICATION OF THE NPP OWNER/OPERATOR FOR UNIT 1 OF CERNAVODA NPP

Dr. Ioan Rotaru

TM/WS on Topical Issues on Infrastructure Development:

Managing theDevelopment of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power

Austria Center Vienna, 9 to 12 February 2010.


START OF ROMANIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM (1)

  • Nuclear Program started in Romania in1950 when the Romanian Academy’s Physics Institute developed a nuclear research program.

  • A Committee for Nuclear Energy was set up in 1955, after the First Geneva International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy.

  • In 1957 Romania became afoundation MemberState of the IAEA Vienna.


START OF ROMANIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM (2)

  • In 1957 a Nuclear Research Reactor VVR-S (RR-VVR-S) was commissioned.

  • Later in 1977a Nuclear Research Reactor TRIGA SSR (14MW) started to operate.

  • The both nuclear installations were used for research (including material testing), training andand radioisotope production.


START OF ROMANIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM (3)

  • In 1965 the Nuclear Power Plants section has been establishedto the University of Polytechnic from Bucharest - Power Engineering Faculty.

  • In 1969, the Institute of Power Studies and Design (ISPE), which was founded in 1949, was involved in the Nuclear Energy Program, through the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Division (new created).

  • In 1973the Institute for Nuclear Technologies (INT) is founded with the main purpose to provide scientific and technological support (TSO) for the Romanian Nuclear Program.


Phase 1 of the nuclear power program
PHASE 1 OF THE NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAM

  • Romania started the implementation of the NationalNuclearPowerProgram in 1970, after a political decison.

  • After considering carefully Russian VVER-440, the Canadian CANDU 6 technology it was adopted.

  • Program Management: National State Nuclear Committee by Nuclear Safety Regulatory Body and Ministry of Energy by a NPP Core Group = Engineering group/section – 100 qualified staff trained in the filed of:

    • NPP Project Management

    • NPP site selection

    • Nuclear Safety

    • Engineering (Civil, Mechanicall, Electrical, C&I)


Phase 2 of the nuclear power program
PHASE 2 OF THE NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAM

  • Common studies with selected nuclear reactor vendor (AECL Canada) to determine the applicable requirements for national infrastructure, regulatory framework and to determine local capabilities for goods and services for the first unit of NPP (1976-1977).

  • Research and development activities started for the production of nuclear material in Romania (nuclear fuel based on natural uranium and heavy water).

  • New research nuclear reactor for nuclear materials testing was commissioned in Pitesti in 1977 (GULF 14 MWt).

  • Site for the first NPP was selected in 1977 (Cernavoda). Specific consultants were used for this activity.

  • Government decided to extend the Nuclear Power program (5 units on Cernavoda site and onother site with 4 units).


CERNAVODA NPP CONSTRUCTION

  • Construction of the first Unit of Cernavoda NPP started in 1980, and of Units 2-4 in 1982.

  • According to the contractssigned in 1979/1980, AECL Canada, ANSALDO Italy and GE SUAprovided engineering pakages, technical assistance for construction, commissioning and training of personnel.

  • Due to the political constrains, the training program was not performed as per contractual provision.

  • In 1991 work on the Units 2-4 was suspended in order to focus on Unit 1 finalisation.


CERNAVODA NPP UNIT 1 FINALISATION

  • AECL (Canada) – ANSALDO (Italy) Consortium (AAC) was in charge of the construction, commissioning, training of personnel and initial operation of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, according to the RENEL-AAC Management Contract signed in August 1991.

  • Cernavoda Unit 1 was connected to the grid in June1996 and started commercial operation in December 1996.


HUMAN RESOURCES FOR CERNAVODA UNIT 1

  • The Unit 1 commissioning and operation Human Resources recruitment process was based on sources such as:

    • Experienced staff (engineers and technicians) from classical Power Plants (more than 6000 Mwe insatalled);

    • Engineers and technicians from Research and Engineering Institutes (IRNE, ISPE);

    • Graduates of the Romanian universities and technical high schools, including NPP section of Politechnical University.


Npp vendor contribution on hr training
NPP VENDOR CONTRIBUTION ON HR TRAINING

  • Training on the job: about 120 persons were trained in Cernavoda Unit 1 Reference Project (Point Lepreau, Canada), during 1992/1993, prior to be assigned to any commissioning and operation activities, in order to allow them to fulfill safely, effectively and efficiently their responsibilities.

  • Transfer of “know-how”: training package for NPP personnel for licensed and non-licensed operation staff, including for technical and maintenance staff as well.

  • Reference Documents, Station Instructions and Internal Department Procedures have been developed by Romanain staff under NPP Vendor staff supervision,to establish a structural Training Concept for Cernavoda NPP staff.


Npp owner operator development
NPP OWNER/OPERATOR DEVELOPMENT

  • Training Centre was build and start operation in Cernavoda NPP in 1993 (classrooms, workshops, Full Scope Simulator, etc.), before to start Unit 1 commissioning.

  • Training programs had been implemented, using for basing training the lecturers from universities and Unit 1 specialists (including Canadian and Italian expats).

  • Training activities for Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 personnel addressed the essential capabilities and qualifications to support plant commissioning and operations.


Human resources specific training
HUMAN RESOURCES SPECIFIC TRAINING

  • Specific training programs were developed and addressed to positions such as:

    • shift supervisor, control room operator, field operator;

    • fuel handling operators and engineers;

    • radiation protection personnel;

    • technical and engineering staff;

    • chemical staff;

    • quality management staff.


Experince with foriegn operators
EXPERINCE WITH FORIEGN OPERATORS

  • According to AAC responsibility for initial operation of Cernavoda NPP Unit1, starting with commissioning and for the first 7 month of initial operation, the former licensed Canadian operators filled the licensed positions of Shift Supervisor and Control Room Operator.

  • Romanian Shift Supervisor and Control Room Operator who have received extensive training at Point Lepreau and in Cernavoda Training Center, were used as deputies, for training on the job.

  • A specific program for re-familiarizationtraining was undertaken by the Canadian licensed staff prior to manual fuel load in order to addressed the essential capabilities and qualifications to support Unit 1 initial operation.


Learened lesson
LEARENED LESSON

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Operation

M1: decision

M2: call for tenders

M3: commissioning

Before NPP contract

After NPP contract

1)Initial trainingprovided by

the NPP Vendor in the similar

facility (Reference Plant)

2)NPP Owner develop and implement specific training

program based on “know-how”, starting with commissioning

  • NPP Owner Operator had main responsibility

  • (national resp. after decision)

  • 2) IAEA plays arelevant role (guidance, assistance)


Romania Cernavoda NPPUnits 1 and 2 in operation (1996 December, 2007 October)Units 3 and 4 under construction (2017-2018)


Candu 6 units
CANDU 6 UNITS

Qinshan 1&2

Cernavoda 1&2

Embalse 1

Gentilly 2

Point Lepreau 1

Wolsong 1/2/3/4


UNIT # 1 – 13 YEARS OF COMMERCIAL OPERATION


UNIT # 2 CERNAVODA: 2 YEARS OF COMMERCIAL OPERATION


CANDU 6 NUCLEAR FUEL PLANT


Cernavoda npp site interim dry spent fuel storage facility
CERNAVODA NPP SITEINTERIM DRY SPENT FUEL STORAGE FACILITY

MACSTORE Type (AECL Canada) – first module operational from 2003;

second – 2006; third – 2008, forth -2010.

Final profile: 27 modules – 50-80 years of storage for 2 CANDU Units.


Cernavoda unit 3 4 under construction
CERNAVODA UNIT # 3 & 4(under construction)


Conclusions
CONCLUSIONS

  • Human Resources is a decisive factor for the succes of the National Nuclear Power program.

  • Cernavoda NPP (Units 1&2) performances (more than 18% of electricity produced yearly in the country, capacity factor above 90%, high level of nuclear safety, etc.) as well the existing national infrastructure for Human Resources, create the real bases for continuation of the Nuclear PowerProgram in Romania.

  • Cernavoda Units 3&4 will be finalize based on the learned lessons and using an inovative financing approach.



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