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10. Classification of Microorganisms. Taxonomy. Taxonomy The science of classifying organisms Provides universal names for organisms Provides a reference for identifying organisms. Taxonomy. Systematics or phylogeny : The study of the evolutionary history of organisms.

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10

Classification of Microorganisms

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Taxonomy

  • Taxonomy
    • The science of classifying organisms
    • Provides universal names for organisms
    • Provides a reference for identifying organisms
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Taxonomy

  • Systematics or phylogeny: The study of the evolutionary history of organisms.
  • All Species Inventory (2001-2025)
    • To identify all species of life on Earth
      • Possibly as many as 10 to 100 million with fewer than 10% discovered (1.7 million)
taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • 1735 Plant and AnimalKingdoms
  • 1857 Bacteria and fungi put in the Plant Kingdom
  • 1866 Kingdom Protista proposed for bacteria, protozoa,

algae, and fungi

  • 1937 Prokaryote introduced for cells "without a nucleus"
  • 1959 Kingdom Fungi
  • 1961 Prokaryote defined as cells in which nucleoplasm is

not surrounded by a nuclear membrane

  • 1968 Kingdom Monera proposed
  • 1978 Two types of prokaryotic cells found
endosymbiotic theory
Endosymbiotic Theory

Cyanophora paradoxa

Figures 10.2, 10.3

species definition
Species Definition
  • Eukaryotic species: A group of closely related organisms that breed among themselves
  • Prokaryotic species: A population of cells with similar characteristics
    • Clone: Population of cells derived from a single cell
    • Strain: Genetically different cells within a clone
  • Viral species: Population of viruses with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche
domain eukarya
Domain Eukarya
  • Animalia: Multicellular; no cell walls; chemoheterotrophic
  • Plantae: Multicellular; cellulose cell walls; usually photoautotrophic
  • Fungi: Chemoheterotrophic; unicellular or multicellular; cell walls of chitin; develop from spores or hyphal fragments
  • Protista: A catchall for eukaryotic organisms that do not fit other kingdoms
identification methods
Identification Methods
  • Morphological characteristics: Useful for identifying eukaryotes
  • Differential staining: Gram staining, acid-fast staining
  • Biochemical tests: Determines presence of bacterial enzymes

Figure 10.8

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“Enterotube II”

Figure 10.9 - Overview (1 of 3)

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