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10. Classification of Microorganisms. Taxonomy. Taxonomy The science of classifying organisms Provides universal names for organisms Provides a reference for identifying organisms. Taxonomy. Systematics or phylogeny : The study of the evolutionary history of organisms.

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10

Classification of Microorganisms


Taxonomy

  • Taxonomy

    • The science of classifying organisms

    • Provides universal names for organisms

    • Provides a reference for identifying organisms


Taxonomy

  • Systematics or phylogeny: The study of the evolutionary history of organisms.

  • All Species Inventory (2001-2025)

    • To identify all species of life on Earth

      • Possibly as many as 10 to 100 million with fewer than 10% discovered (1.7 million)


Taxonomy
Taxonomy

  • 1735 Plant and AnimalKingdoms

  • 1857 Bacteria and fungi put in the Plant Kingdom

  • 1866 Kingdom Protista proposed for bacteria, protozoa,

    algae, and fungi

  • 1937 Prokaryote introduced for cells "without a nucleus"

  • 1959 Kingdom Fungi

  • 1961 Prokaryote defined as cells in which nucleoplasm is

    not surrounded by a nuclear membrane

  • 1968 Kingdom Monera proposed

  • 1978 Two types of prokaryotic cells found





Endosymbiotic theory
Endosymbiotic Theory

Cyanophora paradoxa

Figures 10.2, 10.3




Taxonomic hierarchy
Taxonomic Hierarchy

Figure 10.5


Species definition
Species Definition

  • Eukaryotic species: A group of closely related organisms that breed among themselves

  • Prokaryotic species: A population of cells with similar characteristics

    • Clone: Population of cells derived from a single cell

    • Strain: Genetically different cells within a clone

  • Viral species: Population of viruses with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche


Domain eukarya
Domain Eukarya

  • Animalia: Multicellular; no cell walls; chemoheterotrophic

  • Plantae: Multicellular; cellulose cell walls; usually photoautotrophic

  • Fungi: Chemoheterotrophic; unicellular or multicellular; cell walls of chitin; develop from spores or hyphal fragments

  • Protista: A catchall for eukaryotic organisms that do not fit other kingdoms


Identification methods
Identification Methods

  • Morphological characteristics: Useful for identifying eukaryotes

  • Differential staining: Gram staining, acid-fast staining

  • Biochemical tests: Determines presence of bacterial enzymes

Figure 10.8


“Enterotube II”

Figure 10.9 - Overview (1 of 3)




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