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Chapter 3. Programming a Programmable Controller. Objectives. Describe the available options for programming a PLC. Explain what online is in comparison to offline. List the advantages of software programming with a personal computer over a hand-held programming terminal.

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Programming a Programmable Controller

objectives
Objectives
  • Describe the available options for programming a PLC.
  • Explain what online is in comparison to offline.
  • List the advantages of software programming with a personal computer over a hand-held programming terminal.
  • Explain the differences when interfacing a notebook personal computer to a PLC.
  • Discuss open or soft PLC programming.
  • Provide an overview of the IEC 1131-3 standard.
plc run mode 1 of 2
PLC Run Mode (1 of 2)
  • The PLC can do nothing without someone developing a program and loading it into the PLC processor’s memory.
  • Once the program has been loaded into PLC memory, the processor is put into run mode.
  • While in run mode, the processor is solving the ladder program.
plc run mode 2 of 2
PLC Run Mode (2 of 2)
  • While in run mode, the processor reads field device input signals and stores them in memory.
  • There is one memory location for each input screw terminal’s ON or OFF state.
  • Field device status information is stored in the input status table.
plc programming
PLC Programming
  • The oldest programming method is the hand-held programmer.
  • Most popular programming method is IBM-compatible personal computer using either DOS or Windows software.
  • Higher-end PLCs can only be programmed using software.
allen bradley slc 500 programming options
Allen-Bradley SLC 500 Programming Options

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business

allen bradley slc 500 hand held terminal hht
Allen-Bradley SLC 500 Hand-held Terminal (HHT)

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business

hand held programmer and slc 500 modular processors
Hand-held Programmer and SLC 500 Modular Processors
  • Hand-held are used only on fixed SLC 500, 5/01, and 5/02 processors.
  • 5/03, 5/04, and 5/05 modular processors allow software programming only.
  • MicroLogix 1000 PLC has own hand-held programmer.
smart hand held programming terminal advantages
Smart Hand-held Programming Terminal Advantages
  • Compact size
  • Easy to use and learn, no software required
  • Low cost; cheaper than notebook computer
  • Easy to transport a program to the field
  • Easy to transfer PLC program to HHT for editing or troubleshooting
smart hand held programming terminal disadvantages
Smart Hand-held Programming Terminal Disadvantages
  • Holds one program at a time
  • Newer more complex processors do not support
  • Limited capability to display ladder rungs
  • Documentation not displayed
  • Many keystrokes needed to program or edit ladder program
  • Dead battery means program lost
software programming using pc advantages
Software Programming Using PC Advantages
  • Newer software Windows-based
  • View or monitor multiple ladder rungs
  • Documentation displayed
  • Easy to scroll through rungs for troubleshooting
  • Programs stored on computer’s hard drive
  • Programs transferred to floppy or CD-ROM
  • Easy editing and programming, drag and drop, cut and paste, etc.
software programming disadvantages
Software Programming Disadvantages
  • Maintenance personnel must learn Windows programming software.
  • Notebook computers are expensive.
  • Interface cards are expensive.
  • Personal computers are not designed for factory use.
  • There are frequent software upgrades.
allen bradley 1747 pic interface
Allen Bradley 1747-PIC Interface
  • 1747-PIC communication box used to communicate from a PC’s serial port to a SLC 500 family data highway 485 PLC
  • Connects to any PC with a serial port
  • Communicates with fixed SLC 500, and 5/01, 5/02, and 5/03 modular processors
ab 1747 pic interface converter interface
AB 1747-PIC Interface Converter Interface

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business

connecting a ge rs 422 rs 485 to a rs 232 to a pc 2 of 2
Connecting a GE RS-422/RS-485 to a RS-232 to a PC (2 of 2)
  • Easy connection between personal computer and Series 90-30 or 90-70 PLC
  • Connects to computer serial port
  • Connects up to 50 feet away
desktop or industrial computer interface to plc
Desktop or Industrial Computer Interface to PLC
  • Allen Bradley 1784-KTX interface card
  • PC ISA expansion slot card
  • Connects to data highway plus or data highway 485 processors
  • Set up RSLinx software drivers to communicate
allen bradley s 1784 ktx interface card
Allen-Bradley’s 1784-KTX Interface Card

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business

1784 ktx card and network interface
1784-KTX Card and Network Interface
  • Easy network connectivity between personal computer and up to 64 data highway plus PLC 5 or SLC 5/04 processors (nodes) on DH+ network
  • Up to 32 data highway-485 SLC 500 family processors on network
node addresses
Node Addresses
  • Each device on the network will require a unique identifier called a node or station address.
  • Data highway plus network will support up to 64 nodes, using octal addresses.
  • Data highway-485 network will support up to 32 nodes, using decimal addresses.
communicating to multiple slc 500s
Communicating to Multiple SLC 500s

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business

notebook pc interface to plc
Notebook PC Interface to PLC
  • Direct serial connection
  • Hardware interface device such as 1747-PIC
  • PCMCIA card
pcmcia interface card
PCMCIA Interface Card
  • Notebook PCs do not have expansion slots for installation of KTX card.
  • PCMCIA card is a credit-card sized plug-in interface card.
  • Allen-Bradley’s PCMCIA card is called the 1784 PCMK card.
  • 1784 PCMK card serves as an interface between a PLC and a PC used as a programming terminal.
1784 pcmk card installation
1784 PCMK Card Installation
  • Interface between notebook PC and either DH+ or DH-485
  • Interface PLC 5 or SLC 500 family processors
  • Insert card into notebook computer PCMCIA slot
pcmk card insertion into a pc s pcmcia slot
PCMK Card Insertion into a PC’s PCMCIA Slot

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business

interface cable attachment to pcmk card 1 of 2
Interface Cable Attachment to PCMK Card (1 of 2)

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business

interface cable attachment to pcmk card 2 of 2
Interface Cable Attachment to PCMK Card (2 of 2)
  • One cable to communicate to SLC 500, DH-485 processors
  • One cable to communicate to SLC 5/04, DH+processor
  • Same DH+ cable will communicate to PLC 5 processors
interface cable from pcmk card to plc processors
Interface Cable from PCMK Card to PLC Processors

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business

industrial computers
Industrial Computers
  • Notebook and desktop personal computers were not designed for continuous use in the manufacturing environment.
industrial computers are designed to withstand
Industrial Computers Are Designed to Withstand:
  • Dirt
  • Shock
  • Vibration
  • High temperatures
  • Wash downs
industrial computer features
Industrial Computer Features
  • Shock-mounted hard drives
  • Air filters with air intake fans
  • Hazardous environment rating
  • NEMA 12, 4, and 4X ratings
  • Integrated mouse on front panel
  • Air-conditioned enclosure not required
  • Modular for easy repair
two styles of industrial computers
Two Styles of Industrial Computers
  • Panel-mount
    • Computer and monitor built into one integrated unit
  • Rack-mount
    • Computer either separate component mounted in standard 19-inch rack or embedded inside enclosure
    • Separate monitor or touchscreen display
rockwell automation s rac 6181 computer connections
Rockwell Automation’s RAC 6181 Computer Connections

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business

connecting industrial mouse and keyboard to the rac 6181
Connecting Industrial Mouse and Keyboard to the RAC 6181

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business

what is the iec 1131 3
What Is the IEC 1131-3?
  • Standardize PLC programming
    • A program developed on one system could be used on other PLC platforms with minimum modification.
  • Programming languages, Part 3 of the 1131-3 standard, have attracted the most attention internationally.
iec 1131 3 programming standard
IEC 1131-3 Programming Standard
  • Defines a consistent set of programming languages for PLCs:
    • Ladder diagram
    • Function block diagram
    • Instruction list
    • Structured text
    • Sequential function block
sequential function chart 1 of 2
Sequential Function Chart (1 of 2)
  • It is similar to flowchart programming.
  • It consists of steps and transitions.
  • Each step is represented by a box that contains one or more major actions.
  • When actions in the box are satisfied, the box is exited.
  • Transition step must be true before next step.
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