Chapter 3
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Chapter 3. Programming a Programmable Controller. Objectives. Describe the available options for programming a PLC. Explain what online is in comparison to offline. List the advantages of software programming with a personal computer over a hand-held programming terminal.

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Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Programming a Programmable Controller


Objectives

Objectives

  • Describe the available options for programming a PLC.

  • Explain what online is in comparison to offline.

  • List the advantages of software programming with a personal computer over a hand-held programming terminal.

  • Explain the differences when interfacing a notebook personal computer to a PLC.

  • Discuss open or soft PLC programming.

  • Provide an overview of the IEC 1131-3 standard.


Plc run mode 1 of 2

PLC Run Mode (1 of 2)

  • The PLC can do nothing without someone developing a program and loading it into the PLC processor’s memory.

  • Once the program has been loaded into PLC memory, the processor is put into run mode.

  • While in run mode, the processor is solving the ladder program.


Plc run mode 2 of 2

PLC Run Mode (2 of 2)

  • While in run mode, the processor reads field device input signals and stores them in memory.

  • There is one memory location for each input screw terminal’s ON or OFF state.

  • Field device status information is stored in the input status table.


Plc programming

PLC Programming

  • The oldest programming method is the hand-held programmer.

  • Most popular programming method is IBM-compatible personal computer using either DOS or Windows software.

  • Higher-end PLCs can only be programmed using software.


Allen bradley slc 500 programming options

Allen-Bradley SLC 500 Programming Options

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business


Allen bradley slc 500 hand held terminal hht

Allen-Bradley SLC 500 Hand-held Terminal (HHT)

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business


Hand held programmer and slc 500 modular processors

Hand-held Programmer and SLC 500 Modular Processors

  • Hand-held are used only on fixed SLC 500, 5/01, and 5/02 processors.

  • 5/03, 5/04, and 5/05 modular processors allow software programming only.

  • MicroLogix 1000 PLC has own hand-held programmer.


Smart hand held programming terminal advantages

Smart Hand-held Programming Terminal Advantages

  • Compact size

  • Easy to use and learn, no software required

  • Low cost; cheaper than notebook computer

  • Easy to transport a program to the field

  • Easy to transfer PLC program to HHT for editing or troubleshooting


Smart hand held programming terminal disadvantages

Smart Hand-held Programming Terminal Disadvantages

  • Holds one program at a time

  • Newer more complex processors do not support

  • Limited capability to display ladder rungs

  • Documentation not displayed

  • Many keystrokes needed to program or edit ladder program

  • Dead battery means program lost


Software programming using pc advantages

Software Programming Using PC Advantages

  • Newer software Windows-based

  • View or monitor multiple ladder rungs

  • Documentation displayed

  • Easy to scroll through rungs for troubleshooting

  • Programs stored on computer’s hard drive

  • Programs transferred to floppy or CD-ROM

  • Easy editing and programming, drag and drop, cut and paste, etc.


Software programming disadvantages

Software Programming Disadvantages

  • Maintenance personnel must learn Windows programming software.

  • Notebook computers are expensive.

  • Interface cards are expensive.

  • Personal computers are not designed for factory use.

  • There are frequent software upgrades.


Allen bradley 1747 pic interface

Allen Bradley 1747-PIC Interface

  • 1747-PIC communication box used to communicate from a PC’s serial port to a SLC 500 family data highway 485 PLC

  • Connects to any PC with a serial port

  • Communicates with fixed SLC 500, and 5/01, 5/02, and 5/03 modular processors


Ab 1747 pic interface converter interface

AB 1747-PIC Interface Converter Interface

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business


Connecting a ge rs 422 rs 485 to a rs 232 to a pc 1 of 2

Connecting a GE RS-422/RS-485 to a RS-232 to a PC (1 of 2)

Image courtesy of GE Fanuc Automation


Connecting a ge rs 422 rs 485 to a rs 232 to a pc 2 of 2

Connecting a GE RS-422/RS-485 to a RS-232 to a PC (2 of 2)

  • Easy connection between personal computer and Series 90-30 or 90-70 PLC

  • Connects to computer serial port

  • Connects up to 50 feet away


Desktop or industrial computer interface to plc

Desktop or Industrial Computer Interface to PLC

  • Allen Bradley 1784-KTX interface card

  • PC ISA expansion slot card

  • Connects to data highway plus or data highway 485 processors

  • Set up RSLinx software drivers to communicate


Allen bradley s 1784 ktx interface card

Allen-Bradley’s 1784-KTX Interface Card

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business


1784 ktx card and network interface

1784-KTX Card and Network Interface

  • Easy network connectivity between personal computer and up to 64 data highway plus PLC 5 or SLC 5/04 processors (nodes) on DH+ network

  • Up to 32 data highway-485 SLC 500 family processors on network


Node addresses

Node Addresses

  • Each device on the network will require a unique identifier called a node or station address.

  • Data highway plus network will support up to 64 nodes, using octal addresses.

  • Data highway-485 network will support up to 32 nodes, using decimal addresses.


Communicating to multiple slc 500s

Communicating to Multiple SLC 500s

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business


Notebook pc interface to plc

Notebook PC Interface to PLC

  • Direct serial connection

  • Hardware interface device such as 1747-PIC

  • PCMCIA card


Pcmcia interface card

PCMCIA Interface Card

  • Notebook PCs do not have expansion slots for installation of KTX card.

  • PCMCIA card is a credit-card sized plug-in interface card.

  • Allen-Bradley’s PCMCIA card is called the 1784 PCMK card.

  • 1784 PCMK card serves as an interface between a PLC and a PC used as a programming terminal.


1784 pcmk card installation

1784 PCMK Card Installation

  • Interface between notebook PC and either DH+ or DH-485

  • Interface PLC 5 or SLC 500 family processors

  • Insert card into notebook computer PCMCIA slot


Pcmk card insertion into a pc s pcmcia slot

PCMK Card Insertion into a PC’s PCMCIA Slot

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business


Interface cable attachment to pcmk card 1 of 2

Interface Cable Attachment to PCMK Card (1 of 2)

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business


Interface cable attachment to pcmk card 2 of 2

Interface Cable Attachment to PCMK Card (2 of 2)

  • One cable to communicate to SLC 500, DH-485 processors

  • One cable to communicate to SLC 5/04, DH+processor

  • Same DH+ cable will communicate to PLC 5 processors


Interface cable from pcmk card to plc processors

Interface Cable from PCMK Card to PLC Processors

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business


Industrial computers

Industrial Computers

  • Notebook and desktop personal computers were not designed for continuous use in the manufacturing environment.


Industrial computers are designed to withstand

Industrial Computers Are Designed to Withstand:

  • Dirt

  • Shock

  • Vibration

  • High temperatures

  • Wash downs


Industrial computer features

Industrial Computer Features

  • Shock-mounted hard drives

  • Air filters with air intake fans

  • Hazardous environment rating

  • NEMA 12, 4, and 4X ratings

  • Integrated mouse on front panel

  • Air-conditioned enclosure not required

  • Modular for easy repair


Two styles of industrial computers

Two Styles of Industrial Computers

  • Panel-mount

    • Computer and monitor built into one integrated unit

  • Rack-mount

    • Computer either separate component mounted in standard 19-inch rack or embedded inside enclosure

    • Separate monitor or touchscreen display


Rockwell automation s rac 6181 computer connections

Rockwell Automation’s RAC 6181 Computer Connections

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business


Connecting industrial mouse and keyboard to the rac 6181

Connecting Industrial Mouse and Keyboard to the RAC 6181

Image courtesy of Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation business


What is the iec 1131 3

What Is the IEC 1131-3?

  • Standardize PLC programming

    • A program developed on one system could be used on other PLC platforms with minimum modification.

  • Programming languages, Part 3 of the 1131-3 standard, have attracted the most attention internationally.


Iec 1131 3 programming standard

IEC 1131-3 Programming Standard

  • Defines a consistent set of programming languages for PLCs:

    • Ladder diagram

    • Function block diagram

    • Instruction list

    • Structured text

    • Sequential function block


Sequential function chart 1 of 2

Sequential Function Chart (1 of 2)

  • It is similar to flowchart programming.

  • It consists of steps and transitions.

  • Each step is represented by a box that contains one or more major actions.

  • When actions in the box are satisfied, the box is exited.

  • Transition step must be true before next step.


Sequential function chart 2 of 2

Sequential Function Chart (2 of 2)


Sequential function chart or logic

Sequential Function Chart OR Logic


Sequential function chart illustrating a simultaneous branch

Sequential Function Chart Illustrating a Simultaneous Branch


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