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### Chapter 11 Notes

Forces in Fluids

Section 1 - Pressure

- Pressure decreases as the area over which a force is distributed increases.
- increase surface area, decrease pressure
- ice skates
- Pressure - equal to the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted.
- Pressure = force/area
- pressure units = pascal
- 1 Pa = 1N/m2

Chapter 11

Pressure cont’d

- fluid - substance which can easily flow
- All of the forces exerted by the individual particles in a fluid combine to make up the pressure exerted by the fluid.
- Balanced pressure - air pressure
- as elevation increases, air pressure decreases
- water pressure increases as depth increases

Chapter 11

Section 2 - Floating and Sinking

- Buoyant force - acts in an upward direction, against the force of gravity.
- Makes an object feel lighter

- Archimedes’ principle - the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
- floating and sinking - pg. 383

Chapter 11

Floating & Sinking cont’d.

- density = mass/volume units g/mL or g/cm3
- water density = 1 g/mL pg.363
- By comparing densities, you can predict whether an object will float or sink in a fluid.

Chapter 11

Section 3 – Pascal’s Principle

- Pascal’s principle - When force is applied to a confined fluid, an increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.
- Page 390 - Demonstration

Chapter 11

Hydraulic System

- Multiplies a force by applying the force to a small surface area. The increase in pressure is then transmitted to another part of the confined fluid, which pushes on a larger surface area.
- Small force over small area results in a larger force exerted by a larger area at another place.
- Car brakes, repair shop lift, fire truck ladder

- Small force over small area results in a larger force exerted by a larger area at another place.

Chapter 11

Section 4 - Bernoulli’s Principle

- Wright brothers
- Fluid naturally flows from an area of hogh pressure to an area of low pressure.

Chapter 11

Bernoulli’s principle

- As the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases.
- Air moves at different speeds above and below objects.
- Difference in pressure causes lift or downward force

- wings pg. 395

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Vocabulary List

- Pressure
- Pascal’s principle
- hydraulic system
- buoyant force
- Archimedes’ principle
- Bernoulli’s principle

Chapter 11

Bernoulli’s Principle cont’d.

- Bernoulli’s principle helps explain how planes fly. It also helps explain why smoke rises up a chimney, how an atomizer works, and how a flying disk glides through the air.

Chapter 11

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