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A Study of Church Hist ry. Eras of Church History. The First Century Church (33 -100 A.D.) The Apostolic Fathers (100 – 180 A.D.) The Apologists (180 – 250 A.D.) The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.) The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

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A Study of Church Hist ry

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A study of church hist ry

A

Study

of Church Hist ry


Eras of church history

Eras of Church History

The First Century Church (33 -100 A.D.)

The Apostolic Fathers (100 – 180 A.D.)

The Apologists (180 – 250 A.D.)

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

The Restoration (1800 – Present)


The first century church 33 100 a d

The First Century Church (33 -100 A.D.)

Beginning

Organization

Worship

Membership

Rapid Growth

Warnings

Early Problems


The apostolic fathers 100 180 a d

The Apostolic Fathers (100 – 180 A.D.)

“One step removed from the apostles”

The New Testament was completed by 96 A.D.

Their writings were uninspired.

Their writings show that during this time period the church was following the New Testament pattern.


Clement of rome

CLEMENT of ROME

The church at Rome had three elders Linus, Anacletus and Clement.

The church in Corinth was having leadership difficulties

On behalf of the elders at Rome, Clement wrote a general letter.

The letter

- two hundred scripture references.

- the church was governed by a plurality of elders.

- no distinction made between bishops and elders.


Polycarp

POLYCARP

A companion of the Apostles (close friend of John)

One of the Elders at Smyrna for 50 years

Martyred February 22, 156 A.D. (86 years old)

Letter to the church at Philippi

- quotes from the New Testament 60 times (34 times from Paul’s epistles)

- plurality of elders

Revelation 2:8 -11


The teaching of the twelve apostles

The TEACHING of the TWELVE APOSTLES

Author unknown

Also known as The DIDACHE

“Churches governed by a plurality of elders”

“Worship service still the same”

“The Lord Supper every Sunday”

“Baptism is immersion”

“Emergency Baptism”


Shepherd of hermas

SHEPHERD of HERMAS

Slave > Farmer > Sinner > Christian > Elder

Article written to correct false notion of no forgiveness of sins after baptism

“Plurality of elders”

“No distinction between elders and bishops”

Baptism is for forgiveness of sins and is immersion”


Summary

Summary

The best information on the church of the first eighty years after the death of the last apostles is found in the works of these writers.


Summary1

Summary

Through their writings we find that the actual practices of the church had changed little from that set forth in the New Testament.


Summary2

Summary

These writers give evidence of the independence of each congregation and there is no reference to the church at Rome having any preeminence. Peter is neither mentioned as the Bishop of Rome nor is there any mention of his having been in Rome. Baptism is referred to by all as immersion for the remission of sin.


The apologists 180 250 a d

The Apologists (180 – 250 A.D.)

During its early history the church was tolerated by the Roman government as a sect of the Jews.

Roman officials began to regard the church as an illegal religion.

Official persecution of the church began with Nero in 54 A.D.

Driven to worship in secret, all manner of false accusations begin to be brought upon Christians.

“Cannibals!” “Incest!” “The great fire of Rome!”

“Atheists and pagans!”

Leaders in the church began to defend Christianity by writing what is know as the “Apologies.”

These “defenses” of Christianity give us a clear picture of what the church was like during this time period.


Justin martyr

Justin Martyr

“To the Emperor Titus Ælius Adrianus Antoninus Pius Augustus Caesar, and to his son Verissimus the Philosopher, and to Lucius the Philosopher, the natural son of Caesar, and the adopted son of Pius, a lover of learning, and to the sacred Senate, with the whole People of the Romans”

Justin urges the emperor to investigate Christianity and learn the truth. Christians are not pagans or idolaters. Christ was a fulfillment of prophecy.

But what is most significant is what he says about the worship service at this time.


Justin martyr1

Justin Martyr

“But Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God, having wrought a change in the darkness and matter, made the world; and Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead. For He was crucified on the day before that of Saturn (Saturday); and on the day after that of Saturn, which is the day of the Sun, having appeared to His apostles and disciples, He taught them these things, which we have submitted to you also for your consideration.”


Justin martyr2

Justin Martyr

Lord Supper every Sunday

No instruments of music

Baptism was for the remission of sins and was immersion

All Christians were priests

Churches autonomous with a plurality of elders and no distinction made between elders and bishops; clergy and laity


Other apologists

Other Apologists

Tatian - Wrote the first harmony of the four gospels

Melito (elder at Sardis) – Christianity and the New Testament is God’s final revelation and that the Old Testament was abolished and was only a foreshadowing of the New Testament


Persecution to victory 54 a d 325 a d

Persecution to Victory (54 A.D. – 325 A.D.)

Tiberius (33 A.D. – 37 A.D.)

The church grew rapidly. No persecution.

Gaius or Caligula (37-41)

No persecution but the groundwork was laid when he declared himself to be god.

Acts 9:31 was written during this time period.


A study of church hist ry

Acts 9:31 (KJV) Then had the churches rest throughout all Judaea and Galilee and Samaria, and were edified; and walking in the fear of the Lord, and in the comfort of the Holy Ghost, were multiplied.


Persecution to victory 54 a d 325 a d1

Persecution to Victory (54 A.D. – 325 A.D.)

Claudius (41-54)

He gave Judea to Herod Agrippa (Acts 12:2).

Riots broke out in Rome involving the Jews and their hatred of Christians (Acts 18:2)

Nero (54-69)

July 18, 64 A.D. fire broke out in the city of Rome, burned for 9 days. Nero blamed the Christians to remove blame from himself.

Large number of Christians killed; James the brother of Jesus, Peter and Paul died during his reign.


Persecution to victory 54 a d 325 a d2

Persecution to Victory (54 A.D. – 325 A.D.)

Vespasian (69-79)

No record of persecution of Christians but Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 A.D. as foretold in Mt. 24.

Domitian (81-96)

Blood thirsty killer of Christians who thought he was a god.

One could not hold property as a Christian

John banished to Isle of Patmos where he wrote the book of Revelation


Persecution to victory 54 a d 325 a d3

Persecution to Victory (54 A.D. – 325 A.D.)

Trajan (98-117)

Emperor worship is now the norm.

Attempts were made to totally wipe out Christianity (declared illegal).

Hadrian (117-138) – Persecutions died down

Antoninus Pius (136-161) – No written accounts of persecution???


Persecution to victory 54 a d 325 a d4

Persecution to Victory (54 A.D. – 325 A.D.)

Marcus Aurelius (161-180)

Great persecutions again, many church leaders were killed including Justin and Polycarp.

Falsely accused to steal property.

“Loyalty Oath”

(180-193) – Persecutions continued.

Severus (193-211) – Official law forbidding conversion to Christianity.


Persecution to victory 54 a d 325 a d5

Persecution to Victory (54 A.D. – 325 A.D.)

Decius (249-251) – Devised plan to reveal identity of all Christians.

Annual sacrifice to Roman gods where a certificate was given without which no work, food, or property.

10 percent of Roman now Christian.

Valerian (253-260) – Continues Decius’s policies.

Various Rulers (260-284) – No persecution recorded; Large church buildings were built.


Persecution to victory 54 a d 325 a d6

Persecution to Victory (54 A.D. – 325 A.D.)

Diocletian (284-305)

Committed to destroying Christianity completely.

Worst persecution in the history of the world.

All building burn, all scripture destroyed, all Christians killed.

He built a monument to self as one who destroyed Christianity.


Persecution to victory 54 a d 325 a d7

Persecution to Victory (54 A.D. – 325 A.D.)

Galerious (305-311)

Realize the failure of Diocletian and acknowledge that Christianity would never be destroyed.

On his deathbed issued the “Edict of Toleration”

Official end of Roman Government’s persecution of Christians


Persecution to victory 54 a d 325 a d8

Persecution to Victory (54 A.D. – 325 A.D.)

Constantine issues the “Edict of Milan in 313 A.D.

This not only grants Christians the right to exist, but Christianity is now encouraged.

Civil Court restitution cases

Christianity becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire.


Persecution to victory 54 a d 325 a d9

Persecution to Victory (54 A.D. – 325 A.D.)

Even though persecution had stopped, a great danger was ahead.

Christianity for hundreds of years had know persecution but now it had suddenly stopped!

With this new freedom, heresy and unscriptural changes began almost immediately.


The development of the new testament

The Development of the New Testament

A group of church leaders or councils did not decide on the canon but each congregation worked independently and came to the same conclusion or canon. The providence of God was at work!


Later apologists and early departures

Later Apologists and Early Departures

Tertullian

Argues that persecution will never destroy the church but increase it.

“We multiply whenever we are mown down by you; the blood of Christians is seed.”


Later apologists and early departures1

Later Apologists and Early Departures

Irenaeus

Scripture should be the only authority!

Matthew, Mark, Luke and John were the only inspired Gospels

Isaiah 7:14 = “virgin”

Gives us a list of the bishops of Rome but Peter is not named


Later apologists and early departures2

Later Apologists and Early Departures

Origen

The last great apologist and the first apologist to write in Latin

At the age 17 he saw his father arrested and put to death for being a Christian

He produced an Old Testament in six languages in parallel columns (9,000 pages) and wrote a commentary for each book.


Later apologists and early departures3

Later Apologists and Early Departures

Early Bad Influences

Greek philosophy lead to rationalism

Judaism lead to ceremony and ritual

The pride of men lead to the concept “I can improve on God’s word and I know what is best.”


Later apologists and early departures4

Later Apologists and Early Departures

Early Departures in Church Government

“Chairmen or Presidents” = Bishop

By the close of the third century these bishops were regarded as successors to the apostles.

Large city bishops began to oversee country churches, then regions.

Bishops began to look to Rome for spiritual advice because it was headquarters of the world.


Later apologists and early departures5

Later Apologists and Early Departures

Early Development of the Priesthood

Patterned after Judaism

Distinction between those who led worship

Lord Supper began to become a ceremony of pomp and ritualism

Original Sin and Infant Baptism

Tertullian (160-220) first to formulate the doctrine of original sin.

Cyprian (248-258) provided the obvious conclusion i.e. infant baptism, but this did not become a general practice until the fifth century.


Later apologists and early departures6

Later Apologists and Early Departures

Early Observance of Easter

Christian calendar around the life of Christ that coincided with pagan celebrations and Jewish feasts to make the church more attractive.


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The influence of Constantine

Why he supported the church

He was convinced that the God of the Christians was the strongest supernatural force in the world.

In the west of the empire, there was very little persecution… peace and prosperity was the result.

“The Vision of the Cross”

He saw the church as a tool of unity and culture.


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d1

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The influence of Constantine

How he supported the church (Edict of Milan)

He pushed Christianity as the state religion.

He returned all property back to Christians.

He built elaborate buildings.

He paid preachers from state treasuries.

He declared Sunday to be a legal holiday.


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d2

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The influence of Constantine

The Council of Nicaea (325 A.D.)

Dispute over the nature of Christ (persecution over).

318 bishops

Constantine headed the council (“Bishop of Bishops) and made the keynote address even though he had not been baptized or even claimed to be a Christian.

Issued the first man-made creed.

Decreed that all churches must observe Easter on the same day.

Constantine declared all churches must obey the judgment of the council giving the council the position of speaking for God


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d3

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The influence of Constantine

This active interest in behalf of the church led Christians to exalt Constantine and rely on his decisions. The church soon gave up her independence and began to rely upon the Roman government for its organization and authority.

The Irony

Constantine did not become a Christian until right before his death.

He kept his position as Chief Priest of the pagan religion.

His life was not in harmony with Christianity, murdered his son and wife.


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d4

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Rule of the Ecumenical Councils

The term ecumenical means universal.

As applied to church councils it refers to the first eight councils to which all the Bishops were invited.

They claimed final authority!

Council of Nicaea, 325

First Creed

First Church Law

First Excommunication

First Promotions (Rome, Alexandria, Antioch)


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d5

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Rule of the Ecumenical Councils

Council of Constantinople, 381

Confirmed that the decisions of the first council was religious truth – “Shall not be set aside but shall remain dominant.”

Confirmed the nature of the Holy Spirit.

Confirmed that Jesus was both Divine and human.

Council of Ephesus, 431

“Mary, mother of God”


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d6

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Rule of the Ecumenical Councils

Council of Chalcedon, 451

The Bishop of Rome (rule the West) and the Bishop Constantinople (rule the East) were equal.

“Anathema to all who do not confess that the Virgin Mary is the mother of God.”

To settle an argument…“Peter has spoken through Leo”.

Four councils after this but nothing was really accomplished except the Council of Nicaea in 787 approved the use of “images”.


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d7

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Development of Catholicism during the Time of the Ecumenical Councils

The Establishment of a Catholicity

Bishops recognized the New Testament as authoritative, but they believe it needed an authoritarian interpretation.

Organization was needed to demand conformity, therefore, a pattern of doctrine developed designated as “Catholic”.


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d8

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Development of Catholicism during the Time of the Ecumenical Councils

Sacredotalism

A system of sacraments that provide the grace of God.

From the scriptural position of the priesthood of all believers there developed a distinct priestly class.

As the priestly class developed and the priests began to things for the common Christians that they could not do for themselves.

The administration of the baptism and Lord’s Supper became the sole privilege of the Bishop.

Grace is needed for salvation; Sacrament needed for grace; Bishop could only administer sacrament, therefore…

CONTROL


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d9

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Development of Catholicism during the Time of the Ecumenical Councils

Baptism

During this period – necessary salvation (remission of sins)

Only performed by an approved official

Performed only on certain days

Candidates were required to go through a period of training

An elaborate ceremony

Renounce the Devil

Salt sprinkled on head

Milk and honey consumed after baptism

Dressed in white robes and paraded home wearing crowns

Infant baptism became a common practice after 450 A.D.

Sprinkling was not practiced except in case of emergencies (Novatian 251)


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d10

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Development of Catholicism during the Time of the Ecumenical Councils

The Lord Supper

Came to be viewed as an offering at an altar.

Members would bring bread and wine and give to Bishop who in turn would offer to God and used in service.

At first it was considered a sacrifice of man unto God, but since it represented the sacrifice of Christ, the service became an offering of Christ unto God.

Cyprian added the idea that the service reenacted the offering of Christ.

Transubstantiation was the result but argued against by most until 800’s


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d11

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Development of Catholicism during the Time of the Ecumenical Councils

Increase of Sacraments

As infant baptism increased there arose the need for Confirmation before first communion

It became the duty of the priest to determine whether or not a member genuinely repented and was contrite. This led to a priest absolving one from their sins establishing Penance.

In order to regulate who could became a priest the sacrament of Ordination was instituted.

Marriage could only be performed by a priest

Based on James 5:14-15, the sacrament of Unction and Extreme Unction (last rites) were instituted.

By the 600 A.D. all seven sacraments used by the Catholic church today were being practiced.


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d12

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Development of Catholicism during the Time of the Ecumenical Councils

Special music introduced

4th Century – special singers which lead to choirs

5th Century – first record of instruments being used by some. By the 8th century worldwide


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d13

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Development of Catholicism during the Time of the Ecumenical Councils

Monasticism

It began to be taught that in order to be truly spiritual one needed to be celibate like the apostle Paul.

This was followed by an over emphasis of being separated from the world.

Lesson – to be truly religious one must be a hermit (250 A.D.)

4th Century – hermits began to be organized into monastic groups.

Monks believed in exposing themselves to all manner of hardship in order to make themselves more spiritual

All practiced the three vows – poverty, chastity, and obedience.

Benedict (480-543) a reformer of monks

Took the best leaders away.

Provided a valuable resource during the dark ages

(manuscripts)


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d14

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Development of Catholicism during the Time of the Ecumenical Councils

The Theory and Rise of the Organization of Roman Catholicism

“Christ left the church leaders all power and privileges that He had while on earth”

Christ had a three-fold ministry – Prophet, Priest, and King

These functions must now be taken over by the church leaders

Prophet – teaching

Priest – bestowing the grace of God

King – final authority and rule


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d15

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Development of Catholicism during the Time of the Ecumenical Councils

The Theory and Rise of the Organization of Roman Catholicism

1. Teaching

Church had the same right as Jesus in deciding what was true teaching

Result – unnecessary for church members to study their Bibles; unnecessary for priests to study

Church services turn to ceremonialism apart from instruction


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d16

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Development of Catholicism during the Time of the Ecumenical Councils

The Theory and Rise of the Organization of Roman Catholicism

2. Giving of grace

Sacredotalism

Salvation impossible without submission to the terms of the priesthood

3. Rule

Based on the hierarchy of the Roman government (pyramid)

“Canon Law”


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d17

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Development of Catholicism during the Time of the Ecumenical Councils

The Theory and Rise of the Organization of Roman Catholicism

The hierarchy of the Roman Catholic church (pyramid)

POWER OF JURISDICTION

The Pope (College of the Cardinals and Curia)

Papal Legates

Archbishops (12 Bishops and his territory)

Bishop (over a specific territory or diocese)

Vicar General

Rural Dean (7-12 Parish Priests)

Parish Priest


The formation of the roman catholic church 250 787 a d18

The Formation of the Roman Catholic church (250 – 787 A.D.)

The Development of Catholicism during the Time of the Ecumenical Councils

The Theory and Rise of the Organization of Roman Catholicism

The hierarchy of the Roman Catholic church

POWER OF ORDERS

Janitor (church rolls)

Reader (read scripture in services)

Exorcist (water bearer)

Acolyte (handle vessels and assist in Mass)

Sub-Deacon (ready for ordination)

Deacon (trial period after ordination)

Priest (five sacraments)

Bishop

Archbishop and Cardinal

Pope


The growth of papal power 787 1517 a d

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

The Chronological developments that led to this power

325 – All “bishops” were consider equal. Patriarchs or Metropolitans were appointed (Alexandria, Constantinople, Antioch, and Jerusalem)

341 – Bishop of Rome argued that a dispute should be settled at Rome – “the tradition handed down from the blessed Apostle Peter.”

343 – Meet in Rome – “to honor the memory of Peter.”

376 – Bishop of Rome hires Jerome – “I think it is my duty to consult the chair of Peter… the Rock on which the church is built.”


The growth of papal power 787 1517 a d1

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

The Chronological developments that led to this power

382 – Valentinian the Emperor agrees to back up with imperial forces the decisions of the Bishop Rome.

417 – The Bishop of Rome tells the African bishops – “Nothing should be taken as finally settled unless it came to the notice of this See, that any just pronouncement might be confirmed by all authority of this See, and that the other churches might thence gather what they should teach.”

440 – Leo I, Bishop of Rome declares he has final Apostolic authority


The growth of papal power 787 1517 a d2

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

The Chronological developments that led to this power

445 – Valentinian III decrees that the Bishop of Rome has universal authority – “Inasmuch as the pre-eminence of the Apostolic See is assured by the merit of St. Peter, the first of the bishops… we decree… that nothing shall by the… bishops… without the authority of the venerable pope of the Eternal City.”

451 - Council of Chalcedon declares the Bishop of Rome will rule the West and the Bishop of Constantinople will rule the East. Both should considered equal in power.


The growth of papal power 787 1517 a d3

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

The Chronological developments that led to this power

741 – the Pope works closely with emperor Martel to unify the Christian world to fight against the Muslims

756 – Emperor Pepin makes the pope “Duke of Rome” and gives “temporal” rule of the city

800 – Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne

962 – Pope and Emperor are consider co-regents but the spiritual began to slowly ruled the temporal


The growth of papal power 787 1517 a d4

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

Factors that influenced the growth of papal power

The prestige of the city of Rome

The early benevolence and sound doctrine of the church at Rome

Church became to be regarded as being founded by Paul and Peter “who sealed their faith”

Missionary work by church in Rome – “mother church”

Close proximity to the emperors


The growth of papal power 787 1517 a d5

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

Factors that influenced the growth of papal power

Claims of Apostolic Succession

Rome took the lead in fighting heresy

Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals

Scholasticism

During invasions in which imperial and church administration broke down the Bishop of Rome took over.

The weapons of excommunication, interdict and illiteracy


The growth of papal power 787 1517 a d6

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

The strong Popes of history

Leo I (440-461) first to claim papal authority

Gregory I (590-604) purgatory

Nicholas I (858) demanded obedience as the supreme head of the church based on the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals

Benedict IX, who became Pope in 1033, created such a scandal that he was driven from Rome and replaced by Sylvester III. Benedict, however, managed to return to Rome and maintain his claim that he was the rightful Pope. On the basis of his claim he sold the papacy to Gregory VI. Gregory began to claim papal power, but Benedict decided that he would continue in office, and so for a period of time there were three men claiming to be Pope.

Leo IX (1053-1054) produced the split of 1054, between the east and the west


The growth of papal power 787 1517 a d7

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

The strong Popes of history

Gregory VII (1073-1085)

“The Roman church was founded by God alone; The Roman Pope alone can with right be called universal; he alone may use the imperial insignia; his feet alone shall be kissed by all Princes; he may depose the Emperor; he himself may be judged by no one; the Roman church has never erred, nor will it err in all eternity.”

Decreed clergy must be celibate

Innocent III (1198-1216) Most powerful of all (ruled the entire known world)


The growth of papal power 787 1517 a d8

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

The strong Popes of history

Boniface VIII (1294-1303)

“Came in like a fox, ruled like a lion and died like a dog.”

Priests would no longer pay taxes

“We declare, state, define and pronounce that it is altogether necessary to salvation for every human creature to be subject to the Roman Pontiff.”

“Babylonian Captivity” - 70 years (King Philip; Avignon)


The growth of papal power 787 1517 a d9

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

The Catholic Church Splits (July 16, 1054 – Present)

The Issues

The power of the Pope

Marriage of clergy

Images

Mode of baptism

How they differ today

The Eastern church or the Greek Orthodox church…

4 Patriarchs of equal authority

Leaven bread

Immersion

Permits clergy to marry (unless you want to be a bishop)

Only flat pictures

No use of musical instruments in worship


The growth of papal power 787 1517 a d10

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

Opposition to the Papacy and Catholicism

The Catharists (9Th Century) “pure”

Opposed the Roman hierarchy, accepted the scriptures as their only authority, claimed to be the only true Christians in their generation and lived puritanical lives.

Read the scripture aloud and had the Lord Supper every Sunday; refused infant baptism, baptizing only believers; rejected all human authority, had no formal creed or confession, denounced the ignorance and vice of the clergy.

Thousands put to death as heretics

Chief mistake was they hung on the ideas of the early Gnostics (Dualism, asceticism and celibacy).

Some scholars wonder, however, from the emphasis they placed on the scriptures, that if some of the splinter groups restored N. T. Christianity.


The growth of papal power 787 1517 a d11

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

Opposition to the Papacy and Catholicism

Arnold of Brescia (1100 – 1155)

From his study of the scriptures he…

Taught scriptural baptism and Lord’s Supper

Opposed the clergy.

He was hanged as a heretic, his body burned and the ashes thrown in the Tiber River.

Peter of Bruys (? – 1130)

Priest

Denounce Catholicism, taking the N. T. as his only guide.

He gained great crowds of followers who under his leadership tore down altars and images.

One Good Friday built a fire of wooden crucifixes and cooked meat to show his contempt of Friday meat regulations.

Taught priests could marry and wanted worship to be like the simple worship of the N.T.

Died in prison


The growth of papal power 787 1517 a d12

The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

Opposition to the Papacy and Catholicism

Peter Waldo and the Waldenses (? – 1179)

Wealthy merchant of Lyons who about the year 1160 began to study the Bible.

Persuaded a group of monks to translate the N.T. and certain teachings of the Apostolic Fathers into French.

Organized the “Poor Men of Lyons” (sold all they had and went about preaching the gospel and studying the Bible).

At first had no intention to leave the Catholic church but as they studied they taught against –

Ordination of priests

Purgatory

Worshipping of saints

Sacredotalism

Any authority above the scriptures

Died while hiding in the mountains of Bohemia.


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The Growth of Papal Power (787 – 1517 A.D.)

Opposition to the Papacy and Catholicism

Albigenses

Catharists who converted the town of Albi.

So quickly was their number increasing the Catholic Church offered special rewards to anyone who would leave his occupation for forty days and fight against them.

Fifty thousand marched against the unprepared and unarmed town and 23,000 were massacred, the city reduced to ashes.

Persecutions continued until nearly 2/3 of Southern France were killed.

Large numbers escaped to the mountains where descendants still live today as a Protestant group.

The Inquisition


The protestant reformation 1517 1800 a d

The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

The specific abuses that precipitated the Reformation of the Sixteenth century.

Celibacy – widespread immorality among the clergy

Simony

One-third of the wealth of Europe in terms of real estate belonged to the church.

Church taxed its members.

The clergy paid dues to the Pope to hold office; priests reimburse themselves by charging exorbitant fees.

Selling of church offices.


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

The specific abuses that precipitated the Reformation of the Sixteenth century.

Indulgences

When one sinned satisfaction had to be made both in heaven and on earth.

Penance – heaven

Indulgence – earth “Treasury of merits”

Purgatory – “As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, another soul from purgatory springs.”

Salesmen – “A license to sin”

Hagiolatry

Saints and relics

Simple faith in the blood of Christ was gone.


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

Early Reform movements

Nationalism, individualism, democracy and the Renaissance.

William of Occam (1300 – 1349) taught the pope was not infallible and that a General council was need above the Pope.

John Wycliffe (1320 – 1384) “The morning star of the reformation”

Translated the Bible into English.

Taught that there only two offices in the church – elders and deacons.

Referred to the Pope as the Anti-Christ.

Taught against –

Transubstantiation

Purgatory

Sacraments

“If there were one hundred Popes and all the friars were turned into Cardinals their opinion ought not to be acceded to in matters of faith except in so far as they based themselves upon Scripture.”

1428 – bones burned and ashes thrown in the Severn River.


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

Early Reform movements

John Huss (1373- 1415)

He strongly opposed the doctrine of indulgences and encouraged a return to the study of the Bible.

Burned at the stake, but his death resulted in the Moravian church.

Girolama Savonarola (1452 – 1498)

Monk who preached from the Bible!

Taught God would destroy Catholic Church if it would not repent.

He was offered cardinalship – “I prefer a hat of blood to the hat of a Cardinal.”

He was tortured, hanged and burned.


The protestant reformation 1517 1800 a d4

The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

Early Reform movements

Ximes (1436 – 1517)

Head of the Franciscan order of monks.

Used his appointment by Queen Isabella of Spain, as chief advisor, to clean up the church.

Published the first “Parallel Bible (Hebrew, Greek, and Latin).”

Erasmus (1466 – 1536) “Laid the egg that Luther hatched.”

Study of the Church Fathers

First printed Greek New Testament showed inadequacy of the Latin Vulgate


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

The German Reformation

The immediate cause for the reformation in Germany was an arrangement between Pope Leo X and Prince Albert who was Archbishop of two Roman provinces but was also eager to fill an additional vacant archbishop position. The Pope and the Prince worked together to issue a law authorizing the sale of indulgences in Germany.

John Tetzel – master salesman of the “Confessional Letter.”

Why Luther could succeed

The Renaissance had spread to such an extent that through a revival of interest in study of the Scripture many people were aware of the fact that the church of the New Testament was far different from the RCC.

The corruption of the hierarchy was well known.

The rise of intellectual freedom cause people to think for themselves.

Secular rulers were willing to support opposition to the Pope.


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

The German Reformation

Martin Luther

Born 1483 to a poor family but because of keen intellect eventually got a Master’s degree and soon became a lawyer.

He became interested in his soul and in 1505 became a very devout monk.

He never felt any satisfaction religiously and began to study his Bible especially the writings of Paul.

His study revealed to him the grace of God and by the year 1508, he had come to the conclusion that the Catholic Church and its system of “works righteousness” were contrary to the New Testament.


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

The German Reformation

October 31, 1517, Luther nailed his ninety-five theses on the church door at Wittenburg, in which he set forth his opposition to indulgences and offered to debate any who differed with him.

June 27, 1519 debated John Eck (bottom line – Pope vs. the scriptures)

1520 Luther was excommunicated but Luther burned the paper in the middle of town.

Made use of the printing press to publish tracts that attacked the wrongs of the church


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

The German Reformation

1521 – Diet of Worms

“ Unless I am convinced by Scripture and plain reason - I do not accept the authority of the popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other - my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me. Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise."

Translated the New Testament into German and continued to preach.

The Diet of Speier, 1526, 1529 (“protest”)

1530 – Augsburg Confession of faith


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

The German Reformation

1546 – Luther died and the Lutheran church was formed putting emphasis on conformity to the creed rather than scripture.

1555 – The Peace of Augsburg

Luther laid down four basic principles of Protestantism –

Justification by faith

The priesthood of all believers

The right of the individual to interpret scripture

The final authority in religion is the scripture itself, rather than the authority of the church.


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

The Swiss Reformation

Zwingli (1484 – 1531)

A parish priest in Zurich who began to study the Greek New Testament.

He spoke against indulgences and statue worship

Contrary to standard He began to preach just using his Bible

After reading the works of Luther, he resign his position as priest in 1520 and began to criticize the Catholic system.

Married Anna Reinhard

“Condemnation of all things not justified by scripture”

Began a series of debates with the city council as judge.

After the debates the church in Zurich…

Justification by faith

Simple Lord Supper

Sainthood of all believers

Clergy marry

Services in language of the people

No instruments of music


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

The Swiss Reformation

Almost joined forces with Luther but could not agree with Luther’s “Consubstantiation.” (Mk. 14:22-25)

1525 wrote A Commentary on True and False Religions. (Here he disagreed with Luther even more. Luther removed only what the Bible condemns, but Zwingli would approve only what he found set forth in scripture.)

Made great strides toward renewing N. T. Christianity

Killed in battle by the Army of the Catholic Church. His followers merged with the followers of Calvin to create the Reformed Churches of Switzerland.


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

The Swiss Reformation

John Calvin

Born 1509 to wealthy parents who thoroughly educated him.

1536 wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion

Calvinism – “T. U. L. I. P.”

“Presbyterian” form of government

1541 became dictator of the city of Geneva

Executed 56 men who disagreed with him and banished 76

Developed a spy system to totally regulate lives of the people.

Started the college of Geneva, which greatly influence the world.


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

The Swiss Reformation

The Anabaptists

“Believers baptism”

Persecuted by both Catholics and Lutherans

Made major strides in returning to New Testament pattern, but held false views on Holy Spirit, second coming of Christ (1533 at Strassbourg) and polygamy.

Nearly completely wipe out by execution in 1536

Small group that survive began following Meno Simons and called themselves, “The Brethren.”

Eventually became know as the “Mennonite church” with divisions forming the Quakers and the Baptists.

1559 – over three hundred thousand Protestants in France; the Bible translated into French; the beginning of the religious wars


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

The English Reformation

The church of England

Henry VIII

William Tyndale burned alive (“open the eyes of the King of England”)

Edward (1552 – The Second Book of Prayer)

“Bloody Mary”

Elizabeth

The “King James Version”

The rise of denominations in England

The Dutch reformers became the Congregational church.

The Scotch reformers became the Presbyterian Church (John Knox).

The Anabaptists became the Baptists (Thomas Helwys).

Followers of John Wesley became the Methodist church.


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

Roman reaction to the Reformation

Before the Council of Trent

Change corruption not religion

Study to disprove Protestants

Pope Paul III selected nine cardinals to survey and report on the true condition of the church.

The council of Trent (1563)

Tradition is of equal authority with scripture.

The Latin Vulgate (including the Apocrypha) is the only authoritative text.

The interpretation of scripture is to be done by the church not the individual.

Justification is by both faith and good works.

All the sacraments are valid (Priests are still mediators).

Indulgences are to be sold but will be granted by performing meritorious service.

The existence of purgatory is reaffirmed.

Images are to be used as aids but not objects of worship.

Saints are mediators for special services.

Priests must now submit to a six-year course of study.

The imprimatur stamp.


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The Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1800 A.D.)

Denominationalism transferred to America

Catholicism (1634)

The church of England (1607)

Jamestown, VA

William and Mary College (1693)

Puritans and Congregationalists (1620)

Presbyterians (1620)

Baptists (Roger Williams, 1633)

Methodists (1784)

Other religious bodies

By 1957, 315 different denominations.

From the Reformation until now the tendency has been to divide into more and more denominations.

Unity proposals

Authoritarian

Interdenominational

Undenominational


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