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Budget Estimates/Proposals. A Prelude to the Development of an Operating Program and Budget. Zero-based Budgeting. A Budget Approach. Zero-based Budgeting.

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Budget estimates proposals

Budget Estimates/Proposals

A Prelude to the Development of an Operating Program and Budget


Zero based budgeting

Zero-based Budgeting

A Budget Approach


Zero based budgeting1
Zero-based Budgeting

  • Zero-Based Budgeting is a technique of planning and decision-making which reverses the working process of traditional budgeting. In traditional incremental budgeting, departmental managers justify only increases over the previous year budget and what has been already spent is automatically sanctioned. No reference is made to the previous level of expenditure. By contrast, in zero-based budgeting, every department function is reviewed comprehensively and all expenditures must be approved, rather than only increases. ZBB requires the budget request justified in complete detail by each division manager starting from the Zero-base. The Zero-base is indifferent to whether the total budget is increasing or decreasing.

  • The term "Zero-Based Budgeting" is sometimes used in personal finance to describe the practice of budgeting every peso of income that you receive, and then adjusting some part of the budget downward for every other part that needs to be adjusted upward. It would be more technically correct to refer to this practice as "Active Balanced Budgeting"

  • "With zero-based processing one can forget about last year, pretend that the program is brand-new, and see if one can provide a detail of expenses for what one would need to fully accomplish the program. This technique will help one to develop a complete picture of what the program actually needs to cost and not just what it has been costing.“.


Zero based budgeting2
Zero-based Budgeting

  • A method of budgeting in which all expenses must be justified for each new period. Zero-based budgeting starts from a "zero base" and every function within an organization is analyzed for its needs and costs. Budgets are then built around what is needed for the upcoming period, regardless of whether the budget is higher or lower than the previous one. ZBB allows top-level strategic goals to be implemented into the budgeting process by tying them to specific functional areas of the organization, where costs can be first grouped, then measured against previous results and current expectations.  


Zero based budgeting3
Zero-based Budgeting

  • Because of its detail-oriented nature, zero-based budgeting may be a rolling process done over several years, with only a few functional areas reviewed at a time by managers or group leadership.  Zero-based budgeting can lower costs by avoiding blanket increases or decreases to a prior period's budget. It is, however, a time-consuming process that takes much longer than traditional, cost-based budgeting. The practice also favors areas that achieve direct revenues or production; their contributions are more easily justified than in departments such as client service and research and development.  


Modified zbb
Modified ZBB

  • In zero-based budgeting, a great deal of effort can be devoted in documenting personnel and expense requirements that are readily accepted as necessary.

  • Modified zero-based budgeting can avoid this by starting at a base higher than zero.

  • An appropriate starting point might be 80 or 85 percent of the current spending level.

  • High priority requests above this level could be identified to restore part or all of the current year’s level.

  • Desirable new programs could also be considered for funding.


OPERATIONS PLAN AND BUDGET

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

VISION

MISSION

OBJECTIVES

FISCAL YEAR’S

PROGRAM

THRUSTS

FISCAL YEAR’S

PROGRAM

THRUSTS

OPB

OPB

OPB

OPB

OPB

PERIODIC

ACCOMPLISHMENT

REPORTS

PERIODIC

ACCOMPLISHMENT

REPORTS

PERIODIC

ACCOMPLISHMENT

REPORTS

PROGRAM

REVIEW AND

ANALYSIS

PROGRAM

REVIEW AND

ANALYSIS


The medium term development plan
The Medium-Term Development Plan

  • Established to initially set the direction towards the PNP’s aspirations for its organizations.

  • It consists of the Key Result Areas to guide the organization’s vision and mission.

  • Given the KRA’s, program thrusts are developed to be operationalized by the Operations Plan and Budget.

  • Challenges that brings about expectations of performance are important ingredients of the MTDP for they foster the lessons learned from the past vital for the reformulation and modification of operational priorities.


Programs projects activities
PROGRAMS/PROJECTS/ACTIVITIES

  • The specific objectives which aims to contribute in the attainment of the program thrusts and expectations set for the year by higher objectives will be achieved through the performance of certain programs/projects/activities or P/P/As.

  • These P/P/As enunciate the amount of money which will be provided in order to undertake the activities set forth in the P/P/As.




P

r

o

g

r

a

m

Project

Activity


On output
On Output

  • Indicated by more preventive, pro-active and activities-based, and not just reactive and results-oriented or “body count” influenced indicators.

  • Indicators are units of measurement to analyze the per capita cost of providing a basket of goods and services identifiable in terms of object classes say 02, 07, 29, etc.


A proposal
A Proposal

  • For every major program, it is proposed to include an unprogrammed activity to capture all higher headquarters directed activities which are not anticipated in the OPB.

  • Likewise, it will serve as catchments basin for funds otherwise used for unperformed programmed activity, hence diverted to other activities directed by higher headquarters, thus, necessary to be undertaken.


Opb format
OPB Format

  • A brief on the general situation and a prognosis.

  • A statement of vision and mission as indicated in the national strategic action plan.

  • Statement of the CY program thrusts.

  • Statement of the general objectives as shown by the expectations enunciated in the PNP proposed budget for.


Opb format1
OPB Format

  • Statement of the specific objectives of each program directors thereby defining the specific activities that are sought to be undertaken in order to achieve these specific objectives.

  • The matrix on the different activities and their corresponding budget is attached.


In conclusion,

the Operations Program

and Budget

aligns all the actions

of our organization

from top to bottom

towards the attainment of our

vision, mission and objectives.


Vision/Mission/Objectives

Key Result Areas/Program Thrusts/Expectations

P/P/As


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