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Ecosan Expert Training Course. Capacity Building for Ecological Sanitation. Agricultural Aspects. Katharina Conradin & Martin Wafler, seecon international. Requirements for Plant Growth. Fe. Cu. Light. Ca. O2. P. K. Mg. Water. Soil Structure. N. S. B. Source: Vinner ås (5).

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slide1

Ecosan Expert Training Course

Capacity Building for Ecological Sanitation

Agricultural Aspects

Katharina Conradin & Martin Wafler, seecon international

requirements for plant growth
Requirements for Plant Growth

Fe

Cu

Light

Ca

O2

P

K

Mg

Water

Soil Structure

N

S

B

Source: Vinnerås (5)

Temperature

  • Requirements for plant growth:
    • light,
    • water
    • structure for roots
    • nutrients.
  • When supply of most limiting growth factor is increased, then other growth factors become important as limiting factors.
  • If factors other than nutrients are limiting, increasing nutrients will not help.

Source: (5)

macronutrients micronutrients
Macronutrients & Micronutrients

Plant growth, green colour (photosynthesis), protein content

Root growth, regulates plant metabolism, seed and fruit development

Plant growth, regulates transpiration in plant

  • Nutrients: essential elements
    • Largest uptake: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (in the form of CO2 and water (H20)
    • Increase in: light, carbon dioxide, water and mineral nutrients  increased growth
  • Micronutrients
  • Uptake in very small (micro) amounts
    • Boron (Bh)
    • Copper (Cu)
    • Iron (Fe)
    • Chloride (Cl)
    • Manganese (Mn)
    • Molybdenum (Mo)
    • Zinc (Zn)
  • Macronutrients:
  • Uptake is about 100 times that of micronutrients:
    • Nitrogen (N)
    • Phosphorus (P)
    • Potassium (K)
    • Sulphur (S)
    • Calcium (Ca)
    • Magnesium (Mg)

Source: (5)

nutrient export from agricultural land
Nutrient Export from Agricultural Land

In an agricultural ecosystem, minerals and organic matter are exported from the soil by harvesting the products.

what is artificial fertilizer
What is artificial fertilizer?

Sulphur

Potassium

Phosphorus

Nitrogen

http://www.uspanteco.org

what is artificial fertilizer1
What is artificial fertilizer?

N P K

16 8 16

Balance…?

Balance = SALTS

40

16 + 8 + 16 = ...?

soil degradation salinization
Soil Degradation: Salinization

Salinisation in Gujarat

Build-up of salts

Die off of natural bacteria / microorganisms in the soil

Nutrient holding / transforming capacity of soil decreases

Yield goes down

soil degradation
Soil Degradation

Very high severity

High severity

Moderate severity

Low severity

Stable Land, Ice Caps or non-used wasteland

Source: www.fao.org

Global status of human-induced soil degradation.

advantages disadvantages of artificial fertilizers
Advantages / Disadvantages of Artificial Fertilizers
  • Initial rise in yield
  • Easy to handle (usually relatively small amounts required)
  • Composition adapted to the needs of different crops
  • Costly
  • Build-up of salts
  • Not balanced
  • Not complete
  • Can destroy crumb structure of the soil (no organic material added)
  • Negative effects on microorganisms in soil
  •  reults possibly in land degradation
  • Are easily washed out of the soil

Advantages

Disdvantages

closing the loop between sanitation and agriculture
Closing the loop between sanitation and agriculture

The basic principle of ecosan is to close the loop between sanitation and agriculture without compromising health

GARDENS

GARDENS

ENERGY

ENERGY

FOOD

FOOD

closing the loop

between sanitation and agriculture

NUTRIENTS

NUTRIENTS

Pathogen destruction

Source: (4)

nutrient excretion by humans
Nutrient excretion by humans

We excrete the same amount of nutrients that we take up in our diet (except for children  growth of bones)

N

N

DIET

EXCRETA

P

P

The amount of excreted nutrients by one person is the same amount that is needed as fertiliser to grow the food for that person

 Such a beautiful well-balanced loop!

nutrients in wastewater
Nutrients in “Wastewater”

Greywater

Faeces

Urine

Source: (1)

Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Potassium

Wastewater Flow

human excreta a valuable resource
Human Excreta - A Valuable Resource

million tons per year

(as N + P2O5 + K2O)

135

www.fertilizer.org

50

  • more than 1/3 of global mineral fertilizer consumption can be covered by the reuse of human excreta
  • over 15 billion US$ fertilizer equivalent are annually flushed down the toilet
quantification and characterization of human urine
Quantification and Characterization of Human Urine

Averaged values from various studies conducted in North America and Europe

source (2)

quantification and characterization of human feces
Quantification and Characterization of Human Feces

Averaged values from various studies conducted in North America and Europe

source (2)

nutrients and fertilizer requirements
Nutrients and Fertilizer Requirements

Source: (33)

A high percentage of the nutrient requirements for producing (as an example: 250 kg of cereals) could be met by recovering the nutrients contained in urine and faeces.

plant availability of nutrients in urine and faeces
Plant Availability of Nutrients in Urine and Faeces

Nutrients in Urine:

mostly water-soluble  directly available to plants,

rapid plant availability

Let`s separate!

Jef Vivant

  • Nutrients in Faeces:
    • both water-soluble + non water-soluble nutrients
    • slower plant availability (need degradation)
    • Organic material: water holding capacity

with compost

Without compost

Seedlings after one week without water

benefits of organic matter
Benefits of Organic Matter

with compost

Without compost

Source: T. Alföldi (22)

Seedlings after one week without water

With organic matter

  • Benefits of Organic Matter:
    • Improves soil structure
    • Improves pore space
    • Increases water-holding
    • Better water supply for crops
    • Diversity of micro-organisms
    • Multitude of biochemical processes
    • Capacity to buffer pH and pollutants
    • Better storage and exchange capacity for (micro) nutrients
    • Reservoir of N P K S steadily released by mineralisation

With artificial fertilizer

Source: (5)

visible effects of urine as fertilizer
Visible Effects of Urine as Fertilizer

Alfalfa (animal fodder)

Barley

…it works!

Oats

visible effects of urine as fertilizer1
Visible Effects of Urine as Fertilizer

No Urine

Urine

No Urine

Urine

advantages disadvantages of compost urine as fertilizer
Advantages / Disadvantages of Compost & Urine as Fertilizer
  • Balanced fertilizer
  • Complete fertilizer: contains all nutrients we excrete
  • Good for soil structure
  • Improves water holding capacity
  • Contains organic material
  • Available free of cost
  • No build-up of salts
  • Fosters a rich live of soil microorganism
  • Closes the loop
  • Concentration of nutrients cannot be predicted entirely
  • Not so concentrated
  • Quality depends on quality of raw product
  • Can also be washed out of the soil (esp. dissolved nutrients in urine)

Advantages

Disdvantages

In any case: adequate amount is crurical

slide25

Ecosan Expert Training Course

Capacity Building for Ecological Sanitation in Bhutan

Agricultural Aspects

Katharina Conradin & Martin Wafler, seecon international

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