Advanced aquaculture of carps and tilapia ponds and cages
Download
1 / 47

Advanced Aquaculture of Carps and Tilapia – Ponds and Cages - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 145 Views
  • Uploaded on

Advanced Aquaculture of Carps and Tilapia – Ponds and Cages. Kevin Fitzsimmons, John Woiwode, R.S.N. Janjua ASA SoyPak Multan, Punjab, Pakistan 14 March 2012. Carp and Tilapia. Carps are most important farmed food fish and tilapia are second.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Advanced Aquaculture of Carps and Tilapia – Ponds and Cages' - sondra


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Advanced aquaculture of carps and tilapia ponds and cages

Advanced Aquaculture of Carps and Tilapia – Ponds and Cages

Kevin Fitzsimmons, John Woiwode, R.S.N. JanjuaASA SoyPak

Multan, Punjab, Pakistan

14 March 2012


Carp and tilapia
Carp and Tilapia

  • Carps are most important farmed food fish and tilapia are second.

  • Global demand, variety of production systems and geographic regions, some vertically integrated

  • Environmentally sustainable – “Green Aquaculture” (no fish meal required in the diet, no antibiotics, many farms use effluents for crops)


Subsistence and export commodity
Subsistence and Export Commodity

  • Tilapia is unique in its role as a small livestock animal grown by subsistence farmers in developing countries around the world…..

  • And

  • It is widely grown and exported to high value markets to be served in expensive restaurants and grocery stores

  • Commodity or specialty crop - BOTH, like chicken


US Tilapia consumption (imports and domestic)368,295 mt of live weight (equivalent) – 2006437,000 mt of live weight (equivalent) - 2007453,264 mt of live weight (equivalent) – 2008465,953 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2009)579,443 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2010)


Genetic improvements in tilapia
Genetic improvements in tilapia

(From: Mair, G., 2002)


Selective breeding and genetic improvements
Selective breeding and genetic improvements

  • Excellent breeding programs - G.I.F.T. - Malaysia- Genomar - Brazil and Norway- Chitralada – Thailand- TabTim – Thailand (CP Group)- GIFT Excell – Philippines- Molobicus - Philippines- GIFT Bangladesh

  • Several in Mexico

  • YY Supermale - Philippines and Swansea, Egypt and Indonesia


Carp and tilapia in ponds
Carp and tilapia in ponds

  • Extensive ponds



Multiple small cages
Multiple small cages

Irrigation Reservoir, Arizona

Taal Lake, Philippines

Paulo Afonso Reservoir, Brasil


Other small cages
Other small cages

Nile Delta, Egypt

Shrimp Pond, Thailand

Shrimp Pond, Philippines

All tilapia farms have dogs, even cage farms





Integration of aquaculture and agriculture
Integration of aquaculture and agriculture

  • Water pH reduced from 8.3 to 8.0

  • Added 19.7 kg/ha N to 45 kg/ha used in standard fertilization schedule of cotton.


Results integration of aquaculture and agriculture
Results - Integration of aquaculture and agriculture

  • Contributed 2.6 kg/ha P to cotton crop.




Contents
Contents Well Water

  • Nutrition

  • Pond Fertilization and Natural Feeds

  • Ingredients and Formulations

  • Manufacture and Preparation

  • Storage, Handling, and Feeding Methods


Nutrition and feeding behaviours
Nutrition and feeding behaviours Well Water

  • Tilapia are omnivores (eat lots of things)

  • Carps are more specialized

  • Both capable of consuming decaying vegetable matter

  • Long intestines

  • Filter feeders (algae, bacteria, plankton) when young

  • Need protein and balanced nutrition for rapid growth

  • Maybe more cost effective to settle for moderate growth


Feeding strategy
Feeding strategy Well Water

  • Juvenile fish are especially good at filter feeding phytoplankton.

  • Many hatcheries utilize greenwater culture

  • Juveniles also filter feed on small zooplankters (especially crustaceans)

  • Save money on juvenile feeds by partial nutrition from natural feed in juvenile ponds and tanks


Nutrition decisions
Nutrition decisions Well Water

  • Natural herbivores and detritivores.

  • Opportunistic feeders grazing on algae and bacteria in production system.

  • Fry and fingerlings need high protein (50-40%) diet

  • Growout needs lower protein (32-28%) diet

  • “Organic” diets may be needed for “organic” buyers

  • Compare FCR to decide most efficient diet


Minimize fish meal in diet
Minimize fish meal in diet Well Water

  • Use more soybean meal

  • Utilize other grains treated with phytase

  • Increase use of other by-product meals (meat and bone, blood, feather, poultry by-product, brewers waste, etc.)

  • Examine other locally available ingredients (rice bran, cotton cake, canola, sunflower seed meal, etc)


Carp and tilapia biology
Carp and Tilapia Biology Well Water

  • Long convoluted intestine.

  • Digests complex organic matter

  • Fry are filter feeders

  • Adults are grazers


Proteins
Proteins Well Water

  • Need balanced set of amino acids. Basic building blocks of proteins (and muscles)

  • Ten essential amino acids (required) several more are supplemental


Lipids
Lipids Well Water

  • Lipids are basically fats.

  • Fish need a variety of long chain hydrocarbon fatty acids for proper growth

  • Will also bio-accumulate lipids from consumed algae


Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates Well Water

  • Needed for metabolic energy

  • Carbohydrates are polymers of sugar.

  • Common ingredients are corn, sorghum, rice

  • Molasses is mostly sugar and water. Does not supply as much energy as equal mass of lipid (fat)


Fiber
Fiber Well Water

  • Less digestible material to help move material though the intestines.

  • Helps with micronutrients


Vitamins and minerals
Vitamins and minerals Well Water

  • Commonly supplied in “premix”

  • Often available in natural production of ponds.

  • Not critical for most semi-intensive fish farm operations.

  • Very critical in cage systems


Ingredients and formulations
Ingredients and formulations Well Water

  • Normally need high protein diets for young

  • 40-50%

  • Protein requirements drop as fish reach reproductive age. Lipid demand might increase with egg formation. 30-32%

  • Growout diets only need 25% protein



Pellet mill
Pellet mill Well Water


Compression pellet mill
Compression pellet mill Well Water

  • Feed mixed with water to dough consistency

  • Moistened feed put into hopper, pushed down to auger screw

  • Auger forces feed through the die head.

  • Holes in die determine pellet width

  • Knife blade cuts pellets to desired length


Extruders
Extruders Well Water

  • Floating feeds

  • Feed mixes with steam in barrel of extruder

  • Cooks ingredients, improves palatability

  • Gelatinizes starches

  • Steam expansion and auger forces feed out of barrel with rapid expansion.

  • Traps air in pellet, allows to float



Storage
Storage Well Water

  • Always keep feed as dry and cool as possible

  • Avoids spoilage and rancidity of fats in diet

  • Bags should be on pallets, off floor to allow air to circulate and slow pests (mice, rats, roaches, ants, from getting to bags

  • Large amount can be stored in bulk in silos.


Handling
Handling Well Water

  • Reduce rough handling

  • Crushed pellets form fines which are not consumed by fish.

  • Fed by hand, blower, belts




Conclusions
Conclusions Well Water

  • Tilapia are omnivores

  • But eating anything will not make you grow fast and strong

  • Tilapia need balanced nutrition for rapid growth just like human children


Buy tilapia
Buy TILAPIA Well Water

Thank you!

Questions and discussion?


ad