Advanced aquaculture of carps and tilapia ponds and cages
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Advanced Aquaculture of Carps and Tilapia – Ponds and Cages. Kevin Fitzsimmons, John Woiwode, R.S.N. Janjua ASA SoyPak Multan, Punjab, Pakistan 14 March 2012. Carp and Tilapia. Carps are most important farmed food fish and tilapia are second.

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Advanced Aquaculture of Carps and Tilapia – Ponds and Cages

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Advanced aquaculture of carps and tilapia ponds and cages

Advanced Aquaculture of Carps and Tilapia – Ponds and Cages

Kevin Fitzsimmons, John Woiwode, R.S.N. JanjuaASA SoyPak

Multan, Punjab, Pakistan

14 March 2012


Carp and tilapia

Carp and Tilapia

  • Carps are most important farmed food fish and tilapia are second.

  • Global demand, variety of production systems and geographic regions, some vertically integrated

  • Environmentally sustainable – “Green Aquaculture” (no fish meal required in the diet, no antibiotics, many farms use effluents for crops)


Subsistence and export commodity

Subsistence and Export Commodity

  • Tilapia is unique in its role as a small livestock animal grown by subsistence farmers in developing countries around the world…..

  • And

  • It is widely grown and exported to high value markets to be served in expensive restaurants and grocery stores

  • Commodity or specialty crop - BOTH, like chicken


Advanced aquaculture of carps and tilapia ponds and cages

US Tilapia consumption (imports and domestic)368,295 mt of live weight (equivalent) – 2006437,000 mt of live weight (equivalent) - 2007453,264 mt of live weight (equivalent) – 2008465,953 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2009)579,443 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2010)


Genetic improvements in tilapia

Genetic improvements in tilapia

(From: Mair, G., 2002)


Selective breeding and genetic improvements

Selective breeding and genetic improvements

  • Excellent breeding programs - G.I.F.T. - Malaysia- Genomar - Brazil and Norway- Chitralada – Thailand- TabTim – Thailand (CP Group)- GIFT Excell – Philippines- Molobicus - Philippines- GIFT Bangladesh

  • Several in Mexico

  • YY Supermale - Philippines and Swansea, Egypt and Indonesia


Carp and tilapia in ponds

Carp and tilapia in ponds

  • Extensive ponds


Semi intensive ponds

Semi-intensive ponds


Multiple small cages

Multiple small cages

Irrigation Reservoir, Arizona

Taal Lake, Philippines

Paulo Afonso Reservoir, Brasil


Other small cages

Other small cages

Nile Delta, Egypt

Shrimp Pond, Thailand

Shrimp Pond, Philippines

All tilapia farms have dogs, even cage farms


Large cage farms

Large cage farms


Pond culture to cotton irrigation

Pond culture to cotton irrigation


Fish and citrus in hainan china

Fish and citrus in Hainan, China


Integration of aquaculture and agriculture

Integration of aquaculture and agriculture

  • Water pH reduced from 8.3 to 8.0

  • Added 19.7 kg/ha N to 45 kg/ha used in standard fertilization schedule of cotton.


Results integration of aquaculture and agriculture

Results - Integration of aquaculture and agriculture

  • Contributed 2.6 kg/ha P to cotton crop.


Plant height with fish effluent standard fertilizer and well water

Plant height with Fish Effluent, Standard Fertilizer and Well Water


Fish nutrition and feeds

Fish Nutrition and Feeds


Contents

Contents

  • Nutrition

  • Pond Fertilization and Natural Feeds

  • Ingredients and Formulations

  • Manufacture and Preparation

  • Storage, Handling, and Feeding Methods


Nutrition and feeding behaviours

Nutrition and feeding behaviours

  • Tilapia are omnivores (eat lots of things)

  • Carps are more specialized

  • Both capable of consuming decaying vegetable matter

  • Long intestines

  • Filter feeders (algae, bacteria, plankton) when young

  • Need protein and balanced nutrition for rapid growth

  • Maybe more cost effective to settle for moderate growth


Feeding strategy

Feeding strategy

  • Juvenile fish are especially good at filter feeding phytoplankton.

  • Many hatcheries utilize greenwater culture

  • Juveniles also filter feed on small zooplankters (especially crustaceans)

  • Save money on juvenile feeds by partial nutrition from natural feed in juvenile ponds and tanks


Nutrition decisions

Nutrition decisions

  • Natural herbivores and detritivores.

  • Opportunistic feeders grazing on algae and bacteria in production system.

  • Fry and fingerlings need high protein (50-40%) diet

  • Growout needs lower protein (32-28%) diet

  • “Organic” diets may be needed for “organic” buyers

  • Compare FCR to decide most efficient diet


Minimize fish meal in diet

Minimize fish meal in diet

  • Use more soybean meal

  • Utilize other grains treated with phytase

  • Increase use of other by-product meals (meat and bone, blood, feather, poultry by-product, brewers waste, etc.)

  • Examine other locally available ingredients (rice bran, cotton cake, canola, sunflower seed meal, etc)


Carp and tilapia biology

Carp and Tilapia Biology

  • Long convoluted intestine.

  • Digests complex organic matter

  • Fry are filter feeders

  • Adults are grazers


Proteins

Proteins

  • Need balanced set of amino acids. Basic building blocks of proteins (and muscles)

  • Ten essential amino acids (required) several more are supplemental


Lipids

Lipids

  • Lipids are basically fats.

  • Fish need a variety of long chain hydrocarbon fatty acids for proper growth

  • Will also bio-accumulate lipids from consumed algae


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • Needed for metabolic energy

  • Carbohydrates are polymers of sugar.

  • Common ingredients are corn, sorghum, rice

  • Molasses is mostly sugar and water. Does not supply as much energy as equal mass of lipid (fat)


Fiber

Fiber

  • Less digestible material to help move material though the intestines.

  • Helps with micronutrients


Vitamins and minerals

Vitamins and minerals

  • Commonly supplied in “premix”

  • Often available in natural production of ponds.

  • Not critical for most semi-intensive fish farm operations.

  • Very critical in cage systems


Ingredients and formulations

Ingredients and formulations

  • Normally need high protein diets for young

  • 40-50%

  • Protein requirements drop as fish reach reproductive age. Lipid demand might increase with egg formation. 30-32%

  • Growout diets only need 25% protein


Manufacturing and preparations

Manufacturing and preparations


Pellet mill

Pellet mill


Compression pellet mill

Compression pellet mill

  • Feed mixed with water to dough consistency

  • Moistened feed put into hopper, pushed down to auger screw

  • Auger forces feed through the die head.

  • Holes in die determine pellet width

  • Knife blade cuts pellets to desired length


Extruders

Extruders

  • Floating feeds

  • Feed mixes with steam in barrel of extruder

  • Cooks ingredients, improves palatability

  • Gelatinizes starches

  • Steam expansion and auger forces feed out of barrel with rapid expansion.

  • Traps air in pellet, allows to float


Meat grinders and pasta mills

Meat grinders and pasta mills


Storage

Storage

  • Always keep feed as dry and cool as possible

  • Avoids spoilage and rancidity of fats in diet

  • Bags should be on pallets, off floor to allow air to circulate and slow pests (mice, rats, roaches, ants, from getting to bags

  • Large amount can be stored in bulk in silos.


Handling

Handling

  • Reduce rough handling

  • Crushed pellets form fines which are not consumed by fish.

  • Fed by hand, blower, belts


Bangladesh tilapia aquaculture

Bangladesh tilapia aquaculture


Future global tilapia aquaculture

Future global tilapia aquaculture


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Tilapia are omnivores

  • But eating anything will not make you grow fast and strong

  • Tilapia need balanced nutrition for rapid growth just like human children


Buy tilapia

Buy TILAPIA

Thank you!

Questions and discussion?


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