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Observer Scanner Training. Understanding Weather Section 10 by 1st Lt. Alan Fenter. Section 1: Reduced Visibility. Objective: Discuss acceptable flight visibility, fog, and search area hazards. Flight Visibility. What does the FAA consider acceptable visibility for Safe flight?.

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Observer scanner training

Observer Scanner Training

Understanding Weather

Section 10

by 1st Lt. Alan Fenter


Section 1 reduced visibility

Section 1: Reduced Visibility

  • Objective:

  • Discuss acceptable flight visibility, fog, and search area hazards.

Level II Technician Rating


Flight visibility

Flight Visibility

Level II Technician Rating


Check for understanding

What does the FAA consider acceptable visibility for Safe flight?

Check for Understanding

3 miles lateral visibility with 6/10 of cloud cover with a base at least 1000 feet above the surface.

Level II Technician Rating


Check for understanding1

What is the biggest problem caused by fog?

Check for Understanding

Difficult of impossible to see runways or landing areas

Level II Technician Rating


Observer scanner training

Level II Technician Rating


Check for understanding2

What type of man-made object becomes a much greater hazard to search aircraft when visibility is poor?

Check for Understanding

Very tall towers

Level II Technician Rating


Section 2 haze and smoke

Section 2: Haze and Smoke

  • Objective:

  • Complete statements concerning haze and smoke as flight hazards.

Level II Technician Rating


Check for understanding3

A fine dust causing a lack of transparency in the air is called ________.

Check for Understanding

haze

Level II Technician Rating


Check for understanding4

A condition in which cooler air is overlain by warmer air is called ____________________.

Check for Understanding

Temperature Inversion

Level II Technician Rating


Check for understanding5

A stable atmosphere means the air does not mix through transfer of ________.

Check for Understanding

heat

Level II Technician Rating


Check for understanding6

The transfer of heat is called ____________.

Check for Understanding

Convection

Level II Technician Rating


Check for understanding7

Calm winds that do not move haze and smoke out of areas cause poor ________.

Check for Understanding

visibility

Level II Technician Rating


Check for understanding8

In the summer smoke and haze may extend upward over _______ feet during the heat of the day.

Check for Understanding

10,000

Level II Technician Rating


Check for understanding9

In smoke and haze the greatest surprise to small aircraft pilots is the ______________.

Check for Understanding

Thunderstorm

Level II Technician Rating


Section 3 blowing dust snow sand

Section 3: Blowing Dust, Snow, & Sand

  • Objective:

  • Discuss the conditions and dangers involved with dust, sand, snow, and whiteout.

Level II Technician Rating


Blowing dust or sand

Wind can spread dust over hundreds of miles and upward to 15,000 feet.

One choice…Turn and LAND!

Blowing Dust or Sand

Level II Technician Rating


Section 4 turbulence

Section 4: Turbulence

  • Objective:

  • Select true statements from false ones concerning wake turbulence, its dangers, and proper procedures to deal with it.

Level II Technician Rating


Four categories of turbulence

Four Categories of Turbulence:

  • Light - unsecured objects are displace slightly

  • Moderate - unsecured objects are dislodge

  • Severe - unsecured objects are tossed about

  • Extreme - aircraft practically impossible to control

Level II Technician Rating


Turbulence types

Turbulence types:

  • Low-Level Turbulence LLT

  • Turbulence Near Thunderstorms TNT

  • Clear Air Turbulence CAT

  • Mountain Wave Turbulence MWT

Level II Technician Rating


Low level turbulence llt

Low-Level Turbulence (LLT)

  • Turbulence below 15,000 feet

  • Due to surface heating or friction, within a few thousand feet of the ground

  • LLT includes

    • Mechanical Turbulence

    • Convective Turbulence

    • Frontal Turbulence and Wake Turbulence

Level II Technician Rating


Mechanical turbulence

Mechanical Turbulence

  • Obstructions such as a line of trees, buildings and hills

  • Strong winds flowing perpendicular to mountain ridges - greatest on leeward side

  • During gusty wind conditions, approach and land using power-on

Level II Technician Rating


Convective turbulence

Convective Turbulence

  • Cause by thermals produced by daytime heating of the air in contact with the hot ground. Bubbles of air (thermals) rise causing low level turbulence

  • If the air is moist, cumulus clouds may be seen

  • Convective turbulence can be from light to severe turbulence

Level II Technician Rating


Frontal turbulence

Frontal Turbulence

  • Just ahead of a fast moving cold front

  • Updrafts can reach up to 1000 feet per minute

Level II Technician Rating


Cat clear air turbulence

CAT - Clear Air Turbulence:

  • Turbulence in clear air- no visual warnings

  • It is usually encountered above 15,000 feet

Level II Technician Rating


Cat clear air turbulence1

CAT - Clear Air Turbulence:

  • Often develops near the jet stream (narrow band of very fast winds near the tropopause

  • When a pilot enters an area where significant CAT has been reported, an appropriate action when the first ripple is encountered is to adjust airspeed to that recommended for rough air

  • A curving jet stream (associated with a deep trough) produces greater turbulence than a straight jet stream

Level II Technician Rating


Mountain wave turbulence

Mountain Wave turbulence:

  • When wind is 40 Kts. or more across mountain tops

  • One of the most dangerous features of mountain wave is the turbulent area in and below rotor clouds

Level II Technician Rating


Wake turbulence

Wake Turbulence

  • A wing generating lift spills the higher pressure air (from under the wing) at the wing tip causing wingtip vortices

  • The greatest vortex strength occurs behind heavy, clean, and slow aircraft. (After takeoff: high angle of attack and maximum gross weight)

  • When taking off behind a large aircraft on the same runway, takeoff at a point before the takeoff point of the departing aircraft

Level II Technician Rating


Wake turbulence1

Wake Turbulence

  • When landing behind a large aircraft on the same runway, stay at or above the other aircraft's final approach flight path and land beyond that airplane's touchdown point

  • The wind condition that prolongs the hazards of wake turbulence on a landing runway for the longest period of time is a light quartering tail wind

Level II Technician Rating


Causes of turbulence include encountering air too close to

Causes of turbulence include encountering air too close to:

  • Thunderstorms and cumulus clouds

  • Atmospheric waves produced by mountains

  • Air flowing around hilly terrain

  • Atmospheric cold and warm fronts

  • Tropical storms or hurricanes

  • Edges of jet streams

Level II Technician Rating


Section 5 icing

Section 5: Icing

  • Objective:

  • Discuss the effects and dangers of icing, particularly glaze and frost on an aircraft.

Level II Technician Rating


Kinds of ice

Kinds of Ice

  • Rime Ice

  • Clear or Glaze Ice

  • Mixed Ice

  • Frost

10.8% of all weather accidents result from icing

Level II Technician Rating


Close up of leading edge ice formation

Close-up of leading edge ice formation

Level II Technician Rating


In flight wing leading edge ice formation

In-flight wing leading edge ice formation

Level II Technician Rating


Section 6 severe weather

Section 6: Severe Weather

  • Objective:

  • Complete statements concerning weather threats to aircraft, particularly thunderstorms, their development, and effects.

Level II Technician Rating


Cumulus stage

Cumulus Stage

  • Updrafts form from heating and can reach speeds of several thousand FPM.

  • Altitudes can exceed 40,000 Feet

Level II Technician Rating


Mature stage

Mature Stage

  • Marked by the beginning of rain on the ground.

  • This cloud has become a cumulonimbus cloud because it has an updraft, a downdraft, and rain.

Level II Technician Rating


Dissipating stage

Dissipating Stage

  • After about 30 minutes, the thunderstorm begins to dissipate.

  • This occurs when the downdrafts in the cloud begins to dominate over the updraft.

  • Longest stage of a Thunderstorm.

Level II Technician Rating


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