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Goal 5: Ecology. Why Study Ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environments Ecologist ask questions such as: “What does a coyote eat” “How does temperature affect the growth of plants” “How does day length affect bird migration”. Bio= life

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Why study ecology
Why Study Ecology

  • Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environments

  • Ecologist ask questions such as:

  • “What does a coyote eat”

  • “How does temperature affect the growth of plants”

  • “How does day length affect bird migration”

  • Bio= life

  • The sphere of life consists of living and nonliving factors. It supports all life.

  • Biotic= living

  • Abiotic=non-living

Make a column of biotic and abiotic factors
Make a Column of Biotic and Abiotic Factors


  • -bacteria

  • -grass

  • -fungus

  • -fish

  • -mushrooms


  • -air

  • -water

  • -nitrogen

  • -dirt

  • -sun

Name the abiotic and biotic factors
Name the Abiotic and Biotic Factors

Organizing living things in ecology
Organizing Living Things in Ecology

  • First level (most specific)- Organism

    • Individual living thing

  • 2nd Level - Population

    • Group of organisms all of one species

Organization continued
Organization continued

  • 3rd Level - Biological Community

    • All the living (biotic) populations of species that live in the same place at the same time

Organization cont
Organization cont.

  • 4th level - Ecosystem

    • Both biotic and abiotic things that interact with each other in given area at the same time

Finally the last level
Finally…… The last level

  • Fifth and biggest level - Biosphere

  • Portion of Earth that supports living things

Organisms in ecosystems habitat vs niche
Organisms in EcosystemsHabitat vs. Niche

  • Habitat = the place where an organism lives out it’s life

    • Where you live

    • One habitat can have many niches

  • Niche = strategies and adaptations a species uses in its environment

    • Organism’s role in the habitat

    • More than one species can not occupy the same niche in a location.


  • Relate each one of the characteristics of life to the human body.

  • Example: Genetic Code: My genetic information is contained in DNA and RNA

5 01a identify and describe symbiotic relationships
5.01a Identify and describe symbiotic relationships

  • Symbiosis = "intimate living together" between different species.

  • Refers to the different relationships that can exist between organisms

    1. Mutualism (+,+)

    2. Commensalism (+, 0)

    3. Parasitism (+, -)

    4. Predator-Prey cycle

Mutualism clownfish and anemone
Mutualism – clownfish and anemone

The clownfish gets protection from the anemone and in return protects the anemone from fish that would eat it (angelfish); the clownfish also keeps the anemone free of dirt and debris


Mutualism lichens and algae
Mutualism – Lichens and Algae

Lichens consist of a

fungus with an algae

or photosynthetic

bacterium living

inside the fungus.

The alga provides

food for both of them

and the fungus

provides a habitat for

the alga.


Mutualism ant and aphid
Mutualism – Ant and Aphid

  • Aphids provides honeydew sugar for ants. Ants protect the aphids from predators and parasites.


Mutualism sea slug with algae
Mutualism – sea slug with algae

The algae

lives in the

sea slug

and makes

food for

both of

them – in

return it

gets a place

to live.


Nitrogen fixing nodules
Nitrogen fixing nodules

Bacteria in the

nodules can take

nitrogen gas from

the atmosphere

and turn it into a

form that can be

used by the plant;

in return, the plant

protects the

bacteria from

harmful oxygen and

the bacteria get

food from the plant.


Mutualism pollination
Mutualism - pollination

Many plants depend on

pollinators for their

reproduction. They

provide nectar to attract

these pollinators. So

the pollinator gets fed

and the plant gets



Protozoans in cow s stomach
Protozoans in cow’s stomach

These protozoans along with

bacteria help the cow by

digesting cellulose; cows

don’t have the enzymes to

do this.

The protozoans and bacteria get a place to live and a continual food source. This is a valuable mutualistic relationship.


Ants and acacia trees
Ants and Acacia Trees

  • Acacia provides ants with a protein rich secretion. Ants protect tree from herbivores.


Cattle egret commensalism
Cattle Egret - Commensalism

The cattle stir



and other

insects that the

egret likes to

eat. There is

no apparent

benefit to the


Commensalism shark and remora
Commensalism – shark and remora

The remora

benefits by

getting food

from the

shark’s meal.

But there is no


benefit to the



Commensalism whale and barnacle
Commensalism – whale and barnacle

Barnacle larvae attach to the whale. The barnacle has a habitat. Whale is not harmed.

  • http://www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/wildlife/whales/humptail.jpg


Tick feeds on the blood of the host. The host loses blood or is subject to infection/death.

Mistletoe a plant parasite
Mistletoe – a plant parasite

Mistletoe lives off the branches and stems of Other trees. The tree can be very harmed.


Predator prey

In a predator-prey relationship one organism benefits and the other is killed.

Predator prey cycle
Predator-Prey Cycle

Prey Population = Predator Population

More predators = more prey eaten

Less predators = less prey they eat

Prey Population Goes = Predator Population Goes

Predator: hunts: wolf

Prey: hunted: rabbit

Bubble map
Bubble Map

  • Symbiotic Relationships

  • Benefit

  • Harmed

  • No effect

  • Mutualistic

  • Commensalism

  • Parasitism

  • ** Examples of Each

  • We will be planting Great Northern Beans to grow plants. In your group, you must decide on an experiment that you want to perform.

  • Brainstorm Ideas. Choose one.

  • What do you want to find out? Can you develop an experiment to answer your question? Does your question make sense? Is it confusing?

  • Step 2: Hypothesis

  • What do you think will happen? BE SPECIFIC! Use complete sentences.

  • Step 3: Start developing a procedure