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DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid). History and Structure. C10L28C12. Chromosomes and DNA. During Mitosis we can see Chromosomes. Chromosomes are made of DNA. Chromosomes and DNA. Today’s Goals. Item 1. Item 2. DNA History. DNA Structure. What is DNA?. DNA Nitrogen Bases. Chargaff's Rule.

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Dna deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA(Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

History and Structure

C10L28C12


Chromosomes and dna
Chromosomes and DNA

During Mitosis we can

see Chromosomes

Chromosomes are made of DNA



Today s goals
Today’s Goals

Item 1

Item 2

DNA History

DNA Structure

What is DNA?

DNA Nitrogen Bases

Chargaff's Rule

Item 3

Item 4

Item 5


What is dna
What is DNA?

DNA holds all the genetic information that determines an organism’s traits.

Height

Hair Color

Skin Tone

Eye Color


What is dna1
What is DNA?

Within the structure of DNA is the information for life—the complete instructions for manufacturing all the proteins for an organism.

  • DNA achieves its control by determining the structure of proteins.

    • Enzymes (a type of protein) control the chemical reactions needed for life.

      • Eating, running, even thinking


Today s goals1
Today’s Goals

Item 1

Item 2

DNA History

DNA Structure

What is DNA?

DNA Nitrogen Bases

Chargaff's Rule

Item 3

Item 4

Item 5


Rosalind franklin
Rosalind Franklin

1952

Studied DNA structure with X-ray diffraction

Important clues to the structure of DNA

  • Twisted strands (helix)

  • Angle suggested 2 strands ( double-helix)

  • Nitrogen bases near the center of the molecule


James watson and francis crick
James Watson and Francis Crick

Built a DNA model based on the clues from Franklins X-ray diffraction

1953


Today s goals2
Today’s Goals

Item 1

Item 2

DNA History

DNA Structure

What is DNA?

DNA Nitrogen Bases

Chargaff's Rule

Item 3

Item 4

Item 5


Dna is a double helix
DNA is a Double Helix

A double helix looks like a twisted ladder.


The double helix building blocks
The Double Helix Building Blocks

A DNA strand is a polymer.

They are very long!

It’s length is what allows DNA

to hold so much information

The repeating subunits

of DNA are called

nucleotides


Nucleotide structure
Nucleotide Structure

Composed of 3 parts

  • There are 4

  • possible bases.

  • Broken down into

  • 2 categories

Phosphate

Nitrogen

Base

Deoxyribose

Sugar


Nucleotide structure1
Nucleotide Structure

  • The phosphate groups and deoxyribose (sugar) molecules bond to form the backbone of the chain

  • The nitrogenous bases stick out like the teeth of a zipper.


Today s goals3
Today’s Goals

Item 1

Item 2

DNA History

DNA Structure

What is DNA?

DNA Nitrogen Bases

Chargaff's Rule

Item 3

Item 4

Item 5


Types of nitrogen bases
Types of Nitrogen bases

There are two types of nitrogen bases

Purines

Pyrimidines

Purines have two rings

Pyrimadines have one ring


Types of nitrogen bases1
Types of Nitrogen bases

There are two types of nitrogen bases

Purines

Pyrimidines


Today s goals4
Today’s Goals

Item 1

Item 2

DNA History

DNA Structure

What is DNA?

DNA Nitrogen Bases

Chargaff's Rule

Item 3

Item 4

Item 5


How the double helix is formed
How the double helix is formed

Nitrogen bases bond to one another to connect the two strands

But only certain bases can bond to one another


Chargaff s rule base pairing
Chargaff’s Rule – Base Pairing

1 Purine must bond to 1 pyrimadine

Adenine

only bonds to Thymine

Guanine

only bonds to Cytosine

The

At

Grand

Canyon



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