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Agenda. Ra-Ro Katakana Quiz Fieldtrip Discussion Language Review Hiragana Katakana Vocabulary Lecture: Meiji Restoration Culture: N/A HOMEWORK Katakana: WA, WO, N (writing notebooks AND quiz next class) Meiji Restoration Reading with questions. カタカナ クイズ. 1. RE 2. RO 3. RI 4. RA

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agenda
Agenda
  • Ra-Ro Katakana Quiz
  • Fieldtrip Discussion
  • Language Review
    • Hiragana
    • Katakana
    • Vocabulary
  • Lecture: Meiji Restoration
  • Culture: N/A
  • HOMEWORK
    • Katakana: WA, WO, N (writing notebooks AND quiz next class)
    • Meiji Restoration Reading with questions
slide2
カタカナ クイズ

1. RE

2. RO

3. RI

4. RA

5. RU

slide3
カタカナ クイズ

1. RE - レ

2. RO – ロ

3. RI – リ

4. RA – ラ

5. RU – ル

meiji restoration
Meiji Restoration
  • Enormous changes in Japan\'s political and social structure
  • Late 1800’s
  • Late Edo to Early Meiji

Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) – 1852-1912

alliances
Alliances
  • Restoration based on alliance between Takamori of the Satsuma domain and Takayoshi of the Choushuu domain
    • 1866 supported Emperor Kōmei (Emperor Meiji\'s father) Challenged the Tokugawa Shogunate to restore the emperor to power
  • February 1867 Meiji ascended throne after father’s death
  • Coincided with Japan’s change from feudal to capitalist economy
  • Created lingering Western influence
boshin war
Boshin War
  • War of the Year of the Dragon
    • Choushuu and Satsuma forces defeated the ex-shogun Yoshinobu’s army
    • Allowed Meiji to strip Yoshinobu of all power, enabling official restoration
    • January 1868 Meiji made formal declaration of power
battle of hakodate
Battle of Hakodate
  • Shogunate forces escaped to Hokkaidō
  • Attempted to set up Republic of Ezo
  • Ended at the Battle of Hakodate
motives for restoration
Motives for Restoration
  • Meiji – “Enlightened Rule”
  • Goal: combine western advancements with eastern values
  • Political power: shift from Tokugawa Shogun to an oligarchy
    • Mainly leaders from the Satsuma and Choushuu Provinces
    • Traditional practice of imperial rule wherein emperor performs priestly duties and ministers govern the nation
effects of meiji restoration
Effects of Meiji Restoration
  • Accelerated industrialization in Japan
    • Led to its rise as a military authority by the year 1905
    • Fukoku Kyouhei - “Enrich the country, strengthen the military”
  • Oligarchy consolidated power against Edo:
    • shogunate, daimyo, and the samurai classes
  • 1868 Edo/Tokugawa lands seized and placed under "imperial control"
    • created a central government in Japan which exercised direct power through the entire \'realm’ for the first time in history
  • 1871 past/present daimyo return domains to emperor
    • 300 domains turned into prefectures (later reduced to 75)
    • Controlled by a state-appointed governor.
    • Daimyo received 1/10 of their fiefs\' income and debts for samurai stipends were taken over by the state
  • Abolish Four Divisions of Society
four divisions of society
Four Divisions of Society
  • Model of society in ancient China brought to Japan via Confucianism
    • Wise Ruler – governs impartially and in the best interest of the people
    • Farmer - produces the wealth of society
    • Artisan - reuses the wealth created
    • Merchant - distributes goods
end of the samurai
End of the Samurai
  • Historically wealthy upper class (paid with what?)
  • 1.9 million Samurai existed during Meiji Period
  • Paid fixed stipends - financial burden on the state
  • Oligarchs planned to abolish the samurai class
    • 1873 samurai stipends were taxed
    • 1874 samurai were given the option to convert their stipends into government bonds
    • 1876 conversion to government bonds was made compulsory (control)
end of the samurai military reform
End of the SamuraiMilitary Reform
  • 1873 nationwide conscription
  • At 21 every male would serve for four years full time and three years reserve
  • Peasant class given right to bear arms
  • Samurai were no longer allowed to carry swords to show status
  • Led to a series of riots
    • Satsuma Rebellion – defeated by the Imperial Japanese Army who were trained in Western tactics and weapons
  • Samurai spirit lived on:
    • Romanticized (literature/movies)
    • Propaganda (“Imperialism” and WWII)
end of the samurai acceptance
End of the SamuraiAcceptance
  • Majority were content despite having status abolished
  • Found employment in government
    • Still embodied elite class
    • better educated
      • became teachers, gun makers, government officials, or military officers
    • Title abolished but elitist spirit lived on
industrial growth
Industrial Growth
  • Industrialization/modernization = increase in production/infrastructure
  • Industrialization created increased demand for coal.
  • Steamships and Railroads
  • Rise in coal production:

Year Production (metric tons)

1875 600,000

1885 1,200,000

1895 5,000,000

1905 13,000,000

1913 21,300,000

sino japanese war 1894 95
Sino-Japanese War: 1894-95
  • Tonghak rebellion in Korea
    • Korean government brings in Chinese help
    • Japan opposes China – clash in Korea
    • Japan wins
    • War Demands: Taiwan, the Pescadores, and the Laodung Peninsula.
triple intervention
Triple Intervention
  • Germany, France and Russia
    • Japan was too greedy
    • Japan must give up

Laodung Peninsula

    • Germany takes over Japan’s role on the Laodung Peninsula
triple intervention1
Triple Intervention

Japan learns:

  • We’re not a world power yet
  • Westerners still don’t respect us

Japan’s response:

  • Must get richer and stronger (military)
russo japanese war 1904 05
Russo-Japanese War: 1904-05
  • Negotiations over Russia and Japan’s role in Korea and Manchuria break down
  • Japan withdraws ambassador from Moscow
  • Launches surprise attack
  • Destroys Russia’s Pacific fleet IN PORT at Vladivostok – sound familiar?
    • Quickly defeats Russia
    • Assumes primary control over Korean and Manchurian economic interests
japanese motivation why expansion and aggression
Japanese Motivation:Why expansion and aggression?
  • Japan is small and vulnerable
  • must demand AND earn respect of other world powers
  • Expanding population needed stable food supply
  • Expanding industry needed raw materials and markets

(The joys of world capitalism!)

meiji era national slogan
Meiji Era National Slogan
  • Fukoku Kyōhei
    • "Enrich the country, strengthen the military”
    • originally a phrase from the Chinese Warring States Period
    • Replaced Sonnō Jōi

"Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians"

meiji era japanese industry
Meiji Era -Japanese Industry
  • Zaibatsu:Japan’s major family owned conglomerates
    • Largely built from Tokugawa era merchant fortunes or Daimyo estate fortunes
    • Single-family, wholly owned firms
    • Diversified product lines
zaibatsu labor system
Zaibatsu Labor System
  • Lifetime employment
    • No layoffs
    • No firing
    • No changing firms for promotion
    • Loyalty above all else
  • Seniority
    • Strict, lock-step advancement and salary scale
    • Investment in employee training (Toyota?)

Is this similar to mafia? Take care of us we take care of you?

zaibatsu labor system1
Zaibatsu Labor System
  • Labor Unions
    • Company Union – not craft union
    • Focus on sustainability and accommodation
    • Flexibility in job descriptions
  • Company as a family
    • Company clinic
    • Company resort
    • Company entertainment
    • Company retirement
japan continues to expand
Japan Continues to Expand
  • Annex Korea: 1910
    • Korea as a Japanese province
    • Koreans as Japanese – sort of
    • Northern Korea – Like Manchuria provides natural resources, lumber, ore, manufacturing
    • Southern Korea – Like Taiwan, provides food, especially rice
husbands and wives
Husbands and Wives
  • Name three things affected by the new civil codes of Meiji Japan.
  • The first codes were modeled after what country?
  • Most objections in the code came from what section?
  • What did it threaten?
  • What began to take the place of family as the unit of society?
  • Name two things that were a result of the modified code based on the oldiesystem.

(roll of father/male and position of women)

7. Until what age could a father determine the marriage status of his children?

slide28

8. What were the two primary obligations of a wife in Meiji Japan?

9. What could be ground for divorce or criminal prosecution?

10. Define oku-san.

11. Who was ryosai kenbo mainly directed towards?

12. Was this a realistic model for women to follow? Why or why not?

13. The concept of homu focused mainly on what?

14. In the new homu way of thinking the bride became the __________________ of her own family.

15. What did Japanese women do to define feminimity?

japan expands
Japan Expands
  • WW I: 1914
  • Japan enters on British, U.S. side
    • Moves on German interests in Asia
    • 21 Demands on China (Jan. 1915)
      • Effectively: China accepts tributary status behind Japan
      • China rejects 21 Demands
    • Washington, Pres. Wilson, rejects 21 Demands
      • Upholds Chinese Sovereignty
      • Japanese see this as persecution of Japan
japanese empire 1922
JapaneseEmpire: 1922

By 1922 Japan controlled:

Korea

Manchuria

Taiwan

Enclaves in China

domestic politics taisho democracy
Domestic Politics:Taisho Democracy

New Emperor Taisho:

1912-1926

  • New era of domestic politics
    • From Oligarchs to Genro (elder statesmen)
    • Party Government
      • Cabinet unofficially selected by Diet through party nominations (like in Britain)
domestic politics taisho democracy1
Domestic Politics:Taisho Democracy
  • Expansion of the franchise
    • Universal male suffrage 1926
  • Freedom of Press
  • Freedom of Speech
  • Recognition of political parties
  • Human rights and democracy movements emerge
taisho democracy flounders
Taisho DemocracyFlounders

Economic slowdown (precursor to Great Depression) hits Japan 1925

  • Difficult economic times unsettle emerging democracy
  • Zaibatsu leaders fear loss of resources and markets
  • Military/Zaibatsu alliance emerges

(Military Industrial Complex?)

taisho democracy flounders1
Taisho Democracy Flounders

Signs of reasserted authoritarian control:1925-27

  • Peace Preservation Act 1926 reigns in “excesses” of free press and free speech
  • Military disrupts cabinet by withholding ministers
  • Campaign of political assassinations decimates “liberal” ranks of politicians and government officials
  • Imperial decree on education re-emphasizes Amaterasu and Divinity of the Emperor
    • Military ethics system reinvigorated

through schools – School Warm-ups!

    • Japan’s special role as leader of Asia

becomes standard doctrine in schools

taisho democracy undone
Taisho Democracy Undone

International Events disrupting Taisho Democracy

  • WW I: 1914 – Military reinvigorated
  • 1915: 21 Demands on China
    • Begin occupation of Manchuria
    • US President Wilson Supports Chinese Sovereignty
  • 1921: Washington Treaty – Naval Arms Control
    • 5:5:3 – Japan gets DISrespected
  • 1924: US – Japanese Exclusion Act
  • 1925 economic crisis strikes
    • Leads to 1929 Depression
taisho democracy undone1
Taisho Democracy Undone

Taisho Democracy Collapses 1926

  • Taisho Emperor dies
  • Showa Emperor emerges

International and domestic crises emphasize

  • Japan’s smallness
  • Japan’s vulnerability

Japan’s military-industrial alliance combines with Bureaucrats to reassert control

Refocus nation’s efforts on national slogan

fukoku kyohei
Fukoku Kyohei!
  • Emphasis on military
  • Emphasis on economic independence
    • Capture natural resources through colonies
    • Capture markets through colonies
    • Keep building strong manufacturing base
  • Establish domestic order by:
    • Silencing “chaos” of democratic opposition
    • Unifying government -- assassinate liberals
taisho adventurous youth
Taisho “Adventurous Youth”
  • 1. Define moga and mobo.
  • 2. What sort of activities would Japanese youth take part in the area of Ginza?
  • 3. What about Matsui’s portrayal of Nora in Ibsen’s, A Doll’s House, provoked intense discussion?
  • 4. What about Japanese culture would make this worthy of discussion? (based on question 3; not in reading)
  • 5. What did Matsui do to “single handedly” create a new market for the music recording industry?
  • 6. Name the three foreign things promoted by the “Tokyo March.”
  • 7. The appearance of rebellious youth foretold a reordering of traditional _____________________.
  • 8. The modern girl flaunted an open ___________________ to demonstrate that she would not be enslaved by the chains of conventional morality.
  • 9. The short hair style worn by women was intended to be openly what? (Can you think of an equivalent for your time and culture?)
  • 10. Describe the manner in which Matsui Sumako died.
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