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PErforM for trainers Insert presenters names and titles. Workshop aim. How to involve your own people in solving manual task problems. Workshop outline. Background: statistics and legislation. PErforM approach to manual tasks risk assessment. Manual task risk factors.

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Perform for trainers insert presenters names and titles

PErforM for trainersInsert presenters names and titles

Workshop aim

Workshop aim

How to involve your own people in solving manual task problems.

Workshop outline

Workshop outline

Background: statistics and legislation.

PErforM approach to manual tasks risk assessment.

Manual task risk factors.

Practical sessions using PErforM risk assessment tool.

Implementing the program.



Musculoskeletal disorders account for around 65% of non fatal workers compensation claims, of these, approximately two thirds are a result of hazardous manual tasks.

Highest risk occupations: labourers, machinery operators and drivers, technicians and trades workers, community and personal workers.

Musculoskeletal disorders

Musculoskeletal disorders

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are injuries of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage, or spinal discs.

MSD are caused by:

manual tasks

slips, trips and falls at level

hitting and being hit by objects.

Meaning of hazardous manual task

Meaning of hazardous manual task

“Means a task that requires a person to lift, lower, push, pull, carry or otherwise move, hold or restrain any person, animal or thing that involves one or more of the following:

(a)repetitive or sustained force

(b)high or sudden force

(c)repetitive movement

(d)sustained or awkward posture

exposure to vibration.”

[Schedule 19 - Dictionary]

The legislation

The legislation

WHS Regulation 2011

Hazardous manual tasks, chapter 4, section 4.2.

Code of practice

Hazardous Manual Tasks Code of Practice 2011.

Manual Tasks involving the Handling of People Code of Practice 2001.

What does the regulation say

What does the regulation say?

“A person conducting a business or undertaking mustmanage risks to health and safety relating to a musculoskeletal disorder associated with a hazardous manual task, under part 3.1”. [s60(1)]

Part 3.1 describes using a risk management process

Some ways to manage the risk

Some ways to manage the risk

Management / OHS staff identify, assess and develop controls for hazardous manual tasks (Using COP, risk assessment tools etc).

Consultant to assess and assist in developing controls (ergonomics).

Use workers job knowledge to identify, assess and develop controls (PErforM).

Combination of the above.

What is perform

Whatis PErforM?

Participative Ergonomics forManual tasks

simplified manual task risk management program

based on a participative ergonomics approach

internationally recommended approach for reducing musculoskeletal disorders.

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PErforM elements


participation of

workers and


  • team training

  • communication

  • integrated in systems

  • risk management

  • evaluation

control of manual

tasks risks



and support

improved health,


and safety culture

site champion

Adapted from P.Vink et al. (2006). Applied Ergonomics. 537-546.

D vd no sprains big gains

DVD - No sprains, big gains

Perform risk assessment tool

PErforM risk assessment tool

Worksheet 1 – Manual tasks risk assessment form

Date of assessment and location.

Risk assessors.

Task description.

Worksheet 2 risk factor assessment

Worksheet 2 – Risk factor assessment

Risk factors:


awkward posture




Body map:

body part

PErforM risk assessment tool

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PErforM scale

Perform for trainers insert presenters names and titles

PErforMtask - worksheet 2

Manual tasks related injuries

Manual tasks related injuries

Single, one off exposure:

due to maximum exertion or over load incident

quite rare.

Repeated exposure:

ongoing wear and tear

variety of risk factors

more common.

Combination of both of the above.

Risk factors force

Risk factors: Force

Greater force - greater risk.

Speed and jerk.

Factors that increase effort.

Risk factors working postures

Risk factors: Working postures



Risk factors mechanical vibration

Risk factors: Mechanical vibration

Whole body vibration

vibration is transmitted through the whole body

Hand/arm vibration

vibration is transferred to the hand/arm via eg use of a vibrating tool

Risk factors repetition

Risk factors: Repetition

Short cycle time < 30 seconds.

Risk factors duration

Risk factors: Duration

Time taken to perform the task once or repeatedly without a break.

Amount of time exposed to a risk factor.

Photos: Daryl Dickenson

Scenario lifting lid on pre heater box

Scenario – lifting lid on pre-heater box

  • Lid was:

  • catching on the lip of the pre-heater resulting in forceful jerky movements

  • heavy and awkward to lift

Worker exerting force and awkward

postures to lift the lid on the pre-heater.

Risk assessment before

Risk Assessment - before

Perform team control measure

PErforM team control measure

Sun Metals reduced the forceful exertions and awkward postures by repairing the lid so that it no longer caught on the lip of the pre-heater.

By putting a hinge down the middle of the lid it can easily be opened from each side.

Worker opening pre-heater

with lid cut in half and hinges


Pre-heater with lid cut in half

and hinges installed.

Case study control

Case study - control

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Hierarchy of control

Work teams are trained to use control the hierarchy to eliminate or reduce risk




Hierarchy of control

Hierarchy of control







Team lift

  • Job rotation.

  • Change of workflow.

  • Task specific training.

  • Preventative maintenance program.

  • Personal protective equipment.

Why lifting technique training is not enough

Why lifting technique training is not enough

Evidence to date does not support lifting technique training on its own as a control for manual tasks risks.

Risk factors are not changed.

Work example

Work example







What type of training is appropriate

What type of training is appropriate?

Training should include information on:

manual task risk management

specific manual task risks and the measures in place to control them

how to perform manual tasks safely, including the use of aids, tools and safe work procedures

how to report a problem or maintenance issue.

Identify hazardous manual tasks

Identify hazardous manual tasks

Ask workers, walk through observations.


new manual task created

change to existing tasks, procedures, plant or equipment.

Indications something is wrong:

workers report problems, increased error or decreased productivity.

After an incident/injury.

Psychosocial msd link

Psychosocial / MSD link

Physical health is interconnected to a person’s mental health.

Therefore, workplaces should also manage work-related psychosocial hazards.

For tools and resources refer to:

People at Work:

WHSQ web site:

Frequently asked questions

Frequently asked questions

Practical session

Practical session

Video case study.

Use the PErforM risk assessment tool to:

Identify risk factors (worksheet 1)

Assess the risk (worksheet 2).

Video practical

Video practical

Video practical1

Video practical

Risk controls

Risk controls

Developing control ideas:

Link the control to the risk factor.

Consult with workers and others.

Look for different ways.

Look at similar tasks for ideas.

Find out what are others are doing.

Talk to suppliers.

Trial before implementation.

Focus controls on sources of risk

Focus controls on sources of risk:

Change design or layout of work areas.

Changing the nature, size, weight or number of persons, animals and things handled.

Systems of work.

Work environment.

Work area design layout

Work area design/ layout

Good design includes:

suitable working heights

adequate space

frequently used items

in easy reach

adjustable to suit all workers.

Changing the nature size weight or number of persons animals and things handled

Changing the nature, size, weight or number of persons, animals and things handled


load handling

tools and equipment


System of work

System of work

Guidelines include:

control work load

suitable work pace

task variation

maintenance schedules

match task demands with workers’



Work environment

Work environment

Vibration exposure.

Cold conditions.

Heat and humidity.

Windy conditions.

Floors and surfaces.


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Unloading shipping container



Video practical2

Video practical

Video practical3

Video practical

Prioritising for action

Prioritising for action

High priority tasks:

injuries have occurred

serious consequences

lots of complaints

rated highly on risk assessment form

performed by a lot of workers

done a lot of the time.

Monitor and review

Monitor and review

To ensure:

controls are working effectively

risk factors have been reduced

another hazard or risk has not been created

engineering certification for new designs.

Perform training discussion

PErforM Training - discussion

What are some different ways you might carry out PErforM training?

Who might make up the PErforM team?

Program evaluation

Program evaluation

Measure nominated performance indicators.

Positive indicators

proactive measures.

Lagging indicators

compensation data

lost time injuries.

Potential benefits for business

Potential benefits for business

Effective controls.

A positive impact on:

musculoskeletal symptoms

reducing injuries and workers compensation claims

a reduction in lost days from work or sickness absence.

Meets consultation requirements and improves communication.

Ownership of controls.

Improved safety culture.

Improved productivity.

Management leadership

Management leadership

Management commitment to safety.

Enforce procedures.

Supportive and open to safety suggestions.

Safety communication.

Active involvement in safety.

Due diligence requirements.

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Video - Steve Qld Chamber of Commerce on management commitment to health and safety

Perform for trainers insert presenters names and titles

Video - Adrienne Tracy, Ergonomics consultant, about what safety leaders did that resulted in better outcomes during a recent pilot program



Management commitment.

Appoint a PErforM champion.

Develop implementation plan.

Develop performance indicators.

Implementation plan

Implementation plan

Select a pilot work team / pilot site.

Identify PErforM teams.

Identify hazardous manual tasks.

Obtain video footage.


Perform implementation

PErforM implementation

Work team conducts risk assessments.

Develop control ideas.

Process for management to consider controls.

Controls implemented.

Ongoing process.

Monitor and review.

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PErforM controls decision matrix.

Injury cost calculator.

Implementing controls cont.

Perform resources

PErforM resources

WHSQ workshops.

Resource and trainers manuals.

PErforM handbook.

Web based resources and information from Workplace Health and Safety Queensland website.

Tool Box presentations.

Discussion where to from here

Discussion - Where to from here?

Decide if your workplace would like to use the PErforM program.

Develop a plan of action.

Contact us

Contact us

1300 369 915

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