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“Young people involved in making something beautiful today are less likely to turn to acts of violence and destruction tomorrow. The arts provide opportunities for youth from all backgrounds to do something positive and creative with their talents and their time. We all need to support the arts. In doing so, we are telling America’s youth that we believe in them and value what they can be.”


PYD and the Arts: A Community Needs Assessment for Cultural, Arts-Oriented Youth Programs in Greenville, SC

Charles LeeClemson University, Youth Development Leadership

positive youth development
POSITIVE Youth Development
  • Helping young people achieve their full potential is the best way to prevent them from engaging in risky behaviors.
  • Addressing the positive development of young people can decrease health and social problems by facilitating their adoption of healthy behaviors and helping to ensure a healthy transition into adulthood
40 developmental assets
40 Developmental Assets

The Search Institute has identified the following building blocks of healthy development, known as Developmental Assets, that help young people grow up healthy, caring, and responsible.


1. Family support—Family life provides high levels of love and support.

2. Positive family communication—Young person and her or his parent(s) communicate positively, and young person is willing to seek advice and counsel from parents.

3. Other adult relationships—Young person receives support from three or more nonparent adults.

4. Caring neighborhood—Young person experiences caring neighbors.

5. Caring school climate—School provides a caring, encouraging environment.

6. Parent involvement in schooling—Parent(s) are actively involved in helping young person succeed in school.


7. Community values youth—Young person perceives that adults in the community value youth.

8. Youth as resources—Young people are given useful roles in the community.

9. Service to others—Young person serves in the community one hour or more per week.

10. Safety—Young person feels safe at home, school, and in the neighborhood.

boundaries and expectations
Boundaries and Expectations

11. Family boundaries—Family has clear rules and consequences and monitors the young person’s whereabouts.

12. School Boundaries—School provides clear rules and consequences.

13. Neighborhood boundaries—Neighbors take responsibility for monitoring young people’s behavior.

14. Adult role models—Parent(s) and other adults model positive, responsible behavior.

15. Positive peer influence—Young person’s best friends model responsible behavior. 16. High expectations—Both parent(s) and teachers encourage the young person to do well.

constructive use of time
Constructive Use of Time

17. Creative activities—Young person spends three or more hours per week in lessons or practice in music, theater, or other arts.

18. Youth programs—Young person spends three or more hours per week in sports, clubs, or organizations at school and/or in the community.

19. Religious community—Young person spends one or more hours per week in activities in a religious institution.

20. Time at home—Young person is out with friends “with nothing special to do” two or fewer nights per week.

commitment to learning
Commitment to Learning

21. Achievement Motivation—Young person is motivated to do well in school.

22. School Engagement—Young person is actively engaged in learning.

23. Homework—Young person reports doing at least one hour of homework every school day.

24. Bonding to school—Young person cares about her or his school.

25. Reading for Pleasure—Young person reads for pleasure three or more hours per week.

positive values
Positive Values

26. Caring—Young person places high value on helping other people.

27. Equality and social justice—Young person places high value on promoting equality and reducing hunger and poverty.

28. Integrity—Young person acts on convictions and stands up for her or his beliefs.

29. Honesty—Young person “tells the truth even when it is not easy.”

30. Responsibility—Young person accepts and takes personal responsibility.

31. Restraint—Young person believes it is important not to be sexually active or to use alcohol or other drugs.

social competencies
Social Competencies

32. Planning and decision making—Young person knows how to plan ahead and make choices.

33. Interpersonal Competence—Young person has empathy, sensitivity, and friendship skills.

34. Cultural Competence—Young person has knowledge of and comfort with people of different cultural/racial/ethnic backgrounds.

35. Resistance skills—Young person can resist negative peer pressure and dangerous situations.

36. Peaceful conflict resolution—Young person seeks to resolve conflict nonviolently.

positive identity
Positive Identity

37. Personal power—Young person feels he or she has control over “things that happen to me.”

38. Self-esteem—Young person reports having a high self-esteem.

39. Sense of purpose—Young person reports that “my life has a purpose.”

40. Positive view of personal future—Young person is optimistic about her or his personal future.

the 6 cs approach
The 6 Cs approach
  • Competence-Positive view of one’s actions in domain specific areas including social, academic, cognitive, and vocational.
  • Confidence-An internal sense of overall positive self-worth and self- efficacy; one’s global sense of self-regard, as opposed to domain specific beliefs.
  • Connection-Positive bonds with people and institutions that are reflected in bi-directional exchanges between individuals and peers, family, school, and community in which both parties contribute to the relationship.
  • Character-Respect for societal and cultural rules, possession of standards for correct behaviors, a sense of right and wrong (morality), and integrity.
  • Caring/Compassion-A sense of sympathy and empathy for others.
  • Contribution- participation, influence, service learning, civic engagement, and youth organizing

Catalano, R.F., Berglund, M.L., Ryan, J.A.M., Lonczak, H.S., & Hawkins, D.J. (2004, January). United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Annals, AAPSS, 591, 98-124.

  • Promotes bonding
  • Promotes resilience
  • Promotes social competence
  • Promotes emotional competence
  • Promotes cognitive competence
  • Promotes behavioral competence
  • Promotes moral competence
  • Fosters self-determination
  • Fosters spirituality
  • Fosters self efficacy
  • Fosters clear and positive identity
  • Fosters a belief in the future
  • Provides recognition for positive behavior
  • Provides opportunities for prosocial involvement
  • Fosters opportunities for prosocial norms.
arts based learning program elements
Arts-based learning program elements
  • Psychological and physical safety
  • Unconditional respect for youth
  • A focus on youth’s inner experience and development
  • Belief in youth’s positive potential
  • Belief in youth’s innate creativity
  • Emphasis on artistic process versus technical mastery
  • Range of arts-based activities and opportunities
  • Opportunities for skill-building and success
  • Emphasis on participatory learning
  • Leadership practice
  • Introduction to issues that impact on communities
  • Diverse participation
  • Community building
  • Caring, enthusiastic, and skilled staff
  • Practical supports (such as transportation and financial assistance)
  • Program format – intensive/ongoing
economic impact
Economic Impact

Non-Profit Arts and Culture Industry in U.S.

  • A Formidable Growth Industry
  • Attracts Audiences
  • Spurs Business Development
  • Supports Jobs
  • Generates Government Revenue

From Arts and Economic Prosperity III- by Americans for the Arts

  • The nonprofit arts and culture organizations in the U.S. drive a $166 billion industry—a growth industry that supports 5.7 million full-time jobs and generates nearly $30 billion in government revenue annually.

Youth Arts Public Art, Regional Arts & Culture Council, Portland, Oregon: Organizations: Multnomah County Department of Adult and Juvenile Community Justice, Multnomah County, Portland Art Museum Northwest Film Center, Tears of Joy Theater.

Art-at-Work, Fulton County Arts Council, Atlanta, Georgia: Organizations: Fulton County Juvenile Court, Atlanta Public Schools, the Youth Arts Connection Gallery, Barking Dog Theatre Company.

Urban smARTS, City of San Antonio Department of Arts and Cultural Affairs, San Antonio, Texas: Organizations: City of San Antonio Department of Community Initiatives, San Antonio and South San Antonio Independent School Districts.

YouthARTS Development Project, a collaborative effort of the Regional Arts & Culture Council, Portland, Oregon; the San Antonio Department of Arts and Cultural Affairs, San Antonio, Texas; the Fulton County Arts Council, Atlanta, Georgia; and Americans for the Arts, Washington, D.C.

the arts in schools
The Arts in Schools
  • The VH1 Save The Music Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to restoring instrumental music education in America\'s public schools, and raising awareness about the importance of music as part of each child\'s complete education. Since 1997, the VH1 Save The Music Foundation has provided $48 million in new instruments to 1,800 public schools in more than 100 cities, impacting the lives of over 1.8 million children.  
  • Budget Cuts
  • Decline
          • Value versus priority

What can community based arts organizations do to better meet the need for artistic exposure and expression for all youth?

  • Identify and assess the major organizations that provide arts and cultural opportunities for youth.
  • Support the case for additional funding opportunities for positive youth development arts programming.
  • Determine the extent of communication and collaboration between organizations.
  • Reinforce the importance of community arts outreach and education for all youth.
  • This community needs assessment will collect primary data through face-to-face interviews with program administrators and directors.
  • Qualitative interview results will be coded and analyzed for themes.
  • Secondary data from the organizations will also be considered. Quantitative data will be grouped and summarized

1. Describe the strengths and identify any gaps in community-based education and outreach programs in Greenville, SC.

2. Make recommendations for additional considerations.

3. Create a more holistic account of the arts and cultural events offered for youth in Greenville through community arts organizations.

4. Better serve the youth population of the Greater Greenville area though increased knowledge and collaboration among organizations.


“Our future as an innovative country depends on ensuring that everyone has access to the arts and to cultural opportunity . . . But the intersection of creativity and commerce is about more than economic stimulus, it’s also about who we are as people. We want to ensure that all children have access to great works of art at museums. We want them to have access to great poets and musicians in theaters around the country, to arts education in their schools and community workshops.”