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Ch. 9 Fluid Mechanics

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Ch. 9Fluid Mechanics

pgs. 317 - 342

- When a fluid is in motion, the flow can be described in two ways
- Laminar (Streamline) – every particle moves along the same smooth path traveled by earlier particles
- Turbulent – the flow of the fluid becomes irregular. These irregular motions are called eddy currents.

- The ideal fluid model simplifies fluid-flow analysis
- Ideal Fluid
- Incompressible
- Nonviscous – lose no kinetic energy due to friction as they flow
- Steady Flow – velocity, density, and pressure at each point are constant
- Nonturbulent – no eddy currents in the moving liquid

- The continuity equation results from mass conservation; in other
words when a fluid flows,

mass is conserved.

- Flow rate = Avt

- The speed of fluid flow depends on cross-sectional area
- The pressure in a fluid is related to the speed of flow

- The volume per unit time of a liquid flowing in a pipe is constant throughout the pipe.
- We can say this because liquids are not compressible, so mass conservation is also volume conservation for a liquid.

http://library.thinkquest.org/27948/bernoulli.html

- The sum of the pressure, the potential energy per unit volume, and the kinetic energy per unit volume at any one location in the fluid is equal to the sum of the pressure, the potential energy per unit volume, and the kinetic energy per unit volume at any other location in the fluid for a non-viscous incompressible fluid in streamline flow.
- All other considerations being equal, when fluid moves faster, the pressure drops.

- Relates pressure to energy in a moving fluid
- The expression for the conservation of energy in fluids is called Bernoulli’s Equation

- To compare the energy in a given volume of fluid at two different points, Bernoulli’s equation takes the following equivalent form

- In a hurricane or tornado, the high winds traveling across the roof of a building can actually lift the roof off the building.
- http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6649024923387081294&q=Hurricane+Roof&hl=en

A water tank has a spigot near its bottom. If the top of the tank is open to the atmosphere, determine the speed at which the water leaves the spigot when the water level is 0.500 m above the spigot.