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Male Reproductive System. CHAPTER 16. Male Reproductive System Overview. Functions of male reproductive system Produce, sustain, and transport sperm Propel sperm during sexual intercourse Copulation Produce testosterone. Male Reproductive Primary Organs. Testicles = male gonads

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Male Reproductive System

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Male reproductive system l.jpg

Male Reproductive System

CHAPTER 16


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Male Reproductive System Overview

  • Functions of male reproductive system

    • Produce, sustain, and transport sperm

    • Propel sperm during sexual intercourse

      • Copulation

    • Produce testosterone


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Male Reproductive Primary Organs

  • Testicles = male gonads

    • Small ovoid glands

    • Responsible for production of sperm

      • Seminiferous tubules

    • Responsible for secretion of testosterone

  • Scrotum

    • Sac located posterior to the penis

      • Suspended from the perineum

    • Houses the testicles


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Male Reproductive Accessory Organs

  • Epididymis

    • Tightly coiled tubule that resembles a comma

    • Sperm mature in the epididymis, becoming fertile and motile

      • Mature sperm are stored in lower portion of epididymis


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Male Reproductive Accessory Organs

  • Vas Deferens

    • Also called the ductus deferens

    • Straight tube continuous with the epididymis

      • Enlarges to form an sacklike dilation (ampulla) near prostate gland

      • Merges with the seminal vesicle to form ejaculatory duct


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Male Reproductive Accessory Organs

  • Seminal vesicles

    • Secrete a thick, yellowish fluid known as seminal fluid

    • Constitutes a large part of the volume of the semen


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Male Reproductive Accessory Organs

  • Prostate gland

    • Lies just below the urinary bladder

      • Surrounds the base of the urethra as it leaves the bladder

    • Transports thin, milky colored, alkaline secretions that enhance the motility of the sperm

      • Secretion also helps neutralize the secretions within the vagina

    • Muscular action of gland aids in expelling semen from the body


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Male Reproductive Accessory Organs

  • Urethra

    • Serves both urinary system and male reproductive system

    • Transports urine from the bladder and semen when ejaculated, to the outside of the body

  • Bulbourethral Glands (Cowper’s Glands)

    • Secrete alkaline, mucous-like fluid that provides lubrication during sexual intercourse


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Male Reproductive Accessory Organs

  • Penis

    • Male organ of copulation

    • Tip of penis called the glans penis

    • Prepuce or Foreskin

      • Retractable fold of skin that covers the glans penis

    • Urethra extends the length of the penis and ends as an opening at the tip of the glans penis

      • Opening is called the urinary meatus


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PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

Male

Reproductive System


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Anorchism

  • Pronounced

    • (an-OR-kizm)

  • Defined

    • Absence of one or both testicles


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Balanitis

  • Pronounced

    • (bal-ah-NYE-tis)

  • Defined

    • Inflammation of glans penis and mucous membrane beneath it


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Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

  • Pronounced

    • (bee-NYEN pross-TAT-ik high-PER-troh-fee)

  • Defined

    • Benign enlargement of prostate gland

    • Creates pressure on upper part of urethra or neck of the bladder, causing obstruction to flow of urine


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Carcinoma of the Prostate

  • Pronounced

    • (car-sin-OH-mah of the PROSS-tayt)

  • Defined

    • Malignant growth within prostate gland

    • Creates pressure on upper part of urethra


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Carcinoma of the Testes

  • Pronounced

    • (car-sin-OH-mah of the TESS-teez)

  • Defined

    • Malignant tumor of testicle that appears as a painless lump

    • Also called testicular cancer


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Cryptorchidism

  • Pronounced

    • (kript-OR-kid-izm)

  • Defined

    • Condition of undescended testicle(s)

    • Absence of one or both testicles from scrotum


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Epispadias

  • Pronounced

    • (ep-ih-SPAY-dee-as)

  • Defined

    • Congenital defect in which urethra opens on the upper side of the penis at some point near the glans


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Hydrocele

  • Pronounced

    • (high-DROH-seel)

  • Defined

    • Accumulation of fluid in any saclike cavity or duct

    • Particularly the scrotal sac or along the spermatic cord


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Hypospadias

  • Pronounced

  • (high-poh-SPAY-dee-as)

  • Defined

    • Congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis instead of at the end


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Impotence

  • Pronounced

    • (IM-poh-tens)

  • Defined

    • Inability of a male to achieve or sustain an erection of the penis


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Inguinal Hernia

  • Pronounced

    • (ING-gwih-nal HER-nee-ah)

  • Defined

    • Protrusion of a part of the intestine through a weakened spot in the muscles and membranes of inguinal region of the abdomen

      • Intestine pushes into, and sometimes fills, the entire scrotal sac in the male


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Orchitis

  • Pronounced

    • (or-KIGH-tis)

  • Defined

    • Inflammation of the testes due to a virus, bacterial infection, or injury

      • Condition may affect one or both testes

      • Typically results from the mumps virus


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Phimosis

  • Pronounced

    • (fih-MOH-sis)

  • Defined

    • Tightness of the foreskin (prepuce) of the penis that prevents it from being pulled back

      • Opening of the foreskin narrows due to the tightness and may cause some difficulty with urination


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Premature Ejaculation

  • Pronounced

    • (premature ee-jak-yoo-LAY-shun)

  • Defined

    • Discharge of seminal fluid prior to complete erection of the penis or immediately after the penis has been introduced into the vaginal canal


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Prostatitis

  • Pronounced

    • (pross-tah-TYE-tis)

  • Defined

    • Inflammation of the prostate gland

      • May be acute or chronic

      • May be due to bacterial invasion


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Varicocele

  • Pronounced

    • (VAIR-ih-koh-seel)

  • Defined

    • Abnormal dilation of the veins of the spermatic cord leading to the testicle


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SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

Male and Female


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AIDS

  • Pronounced

    • (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)

  • Defined

    • Deadly virus that destroys the body’s immune system by invading the helper T lymphocytes (T cells)

    • T cells play an important part in the body’s immune response

      • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates itself within the T cells, destroys the lymphocyte, and then invades other lymphocytes


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Chlamydia

  • Pronounced

    • (klah-MID-ee-ah)

  • Defined

    • Sexually transmitted bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the cervix in women and inflammation of the urethra and the epididymis in men


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Genital Herpes

  • Pronounced

    • (JEN-ih-tal HER-peez)

  • Defined

    • Highly contagious viral infection of the male and female genitalia, caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV-2)

    • Also known as venereal herpes

      • Differs from other sexually transmitted diseases in that it can recur spontaneously once the virus has been acquired


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Genital Warts

  • Pronounced

    • (JEN-ih-tal warts)

  • Defined

    • Small, cauliflower-like, fleshy growths usually seen along the penis in the male and in or near the vagina in women

      • Caused by human papillomavirus (HPV)

      • Transmitted from person to person through sexual intercourse


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Gonorrhea

  • Pronounced

    • (gon-oh-REE-ah)

  • Defined

    • Sexually transmitted bacterial infection of the mucous membrane of the genital tract in men and women, caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae

      • Spread by sexual intercourse with an infected partner

      • Can be passed from infected mother to her infant during the birth process


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Syphilis

  • Pronounced

    • (SIF-ih-lis)

  • Defined

    • Sexually transmitted disease characterized by lesions that may involve any organ or tissue

      • Spread by sexual intercourse with an infected partner

      • If left untreated, disease passes through three stages, each with characteristic signs and symptoms


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Syphilis

  • Primary syphilis

    • Characterized by appearance of a small, painless, red pustule on the skin or mucous membrane

      • Known as a chancre

      • Develops on the penis of the male and the labia of the vagina in females

      • Appears within 10 days to a few weeks after exposure


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Syphilis

  • Secondary syphilis

    • Occurs approximately two months later if primary phase is left untreated

    • Dominant sign is non-itching rash on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet

      • May also experience headache, sore throat, fever, malaise, anorexia, and bone and joint pain


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Syphilis

  • Secondary syphilis

    • Disease is still contagious during second stage

      • Can be treated effectively with penicillin

    • Dormant period follows secondary stage

      • For 5 to 20 years before reappearing in its final stage


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Syphilis

  • Tertiary syphilis

    • Final and most serious stage of the untreated disease

    • By third stage, lesions have invaded body organs and systems

      • Lesions of tertiary syphilis are not reversible, do not respond to treatment with penicillin and can lead to life-threatening disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and heart


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Syphilis

Primary Syphilis: Male


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Trichomoniasis

  • Pronounced

    • (trik-oh-moh-NYE-as-sis)

  • Defined

    • Sexually transmitted protozoal infection of the vagina, urethra, or prostate

    • Causative organism is Trichomonas vaginalis

      • Women will experience itching and burning, and a strong-smelling vaginal discharge that is greenish-yellow


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DIAGNOSTICTECHNIQUES, TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES

Male

Reproductive System


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Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Castration

    • Surgical removal of the testicles in the male (or the ovaries in the female)

    • Known as an orchidectomy or orchiectomy in the male

    • Known as an oophorectomy in the female


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Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Cystoscopy

    • Process of visualizing the urinary tract through a cystoscope that has been inserted in the urethra

  • Circumcision

    • Surgical procedure in which the foreskin (prepuce) of the penis is removed


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Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

Circumcision

  • Before

  • After procedure


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Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • FTA-ABS Test

    • Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption Test

    • Serological test for syphilis (performed on blood serum)


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Diagnostic Techniques,Treatments, and Procedures

  • Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)

    • Radiographic procedure that provides visualization of the entire urinary tract

      • Contrast dye is injected intravenously and multiple x-ray films are taken as the medium is cleared from the blood by the glomerular filtration of the kidney

    • Also known as intravenous pyelography or excretory urogram


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Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Orchidectomy

    • Surgical removal of a testicle

    • Also called orchiectomy

  • Orchidopexy

    • Surgical fixation of a testicle

    • Also called orchiopexy


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Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Semen analysis

    • Assessment of a sample of semen for volume, viscosity, sperm count, sperm motility, and percentage of any abnormal sperm

  • Radical prostatectomy

    • Surgical removal of the entire prostate gland as a treatment for cancer

  • Suprapubic prostatectomy

    • Surgical removal of the prostate gland by making an incision into the abdominal wall, just above the pubis


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Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR or TURP)

    • Surgical removal of prostate gland by inserting a resectoscope through urethra and into bladder to remove small pieces of tissue from prostate


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Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Vasectomy

    • Surgical cutting and tying of the vas deferens to prevent passage of sperm, consequently preventing pregnancy

    • Male sterilization


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Diagnostic Techniques,Treatments, and Procedures

  • VDRL test

    • Serological test for syphilis widely used to test for primary and secondary syphilis

      • Performed on blood serum

    • VDRL = Venereal Disease Research Laboratory


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Diagnostic Techniques,Treatments, and Procedures

  • Wet mount; Wet prep

    • Microscopic examination of fresh vaginal or male urethral secretions to test for presence of living organisms


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