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The Modern State. The creation of the world as you now know it. Why is Space Politically Organized into States and Nations?... and how did they get that way??. Key Question:. State.

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The modern state

The Modern State

The creation of the world as you now know it.


Why is space politically organized into states and nations and how did they get that way

Why is Space Politically Organized into States and Nations?... and how did they get that way??

Key Question:


State
State Nations?... and how did they get that way??

State – a politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government. To be a state, an entity must be recognized by such by other states.


Territoriality – Nations?... and how did they get that way??

“the attempt by an individual or group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area.” – Robert Sack

Sovereignty –

having the last say over a territory – legally.

Territorial Integrity –

a government has the right to keep the borders and territory of a state in tact and free from attack.


Nations
Nations Nations?... and how did they get that way??

Nation – a culturally defined group of people with a shared past and a common future who relate to a territory and have political goals.

People construct nations to make sense of themselves.

Nations are “imagined communities”

-Benedict Anderson

imagined = you will never meet all the people in your nation

community = you see yourself as part of it


The modern state idea
The Modern State Idea Nations?... and how did they get that way??

The idea of a state that is tied to a particular territory with defined boundaries came out of Europe and diffused through:

mercantilism

colonialism


Nation state
Nation-State Nations?... and how did they get that way??

Nation-State –

a politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space.

Where did the ideal of the nation-state originate?

How did the ideal of the nation-state diffuse?

Are there any nation-states in the world today?


Multinational State – Nations?... and how did they get that way??

A state with more than one nation.

The Former Yugoslavia


Multistate Nation – Nations?... and how did they get that way??

A nation with more than one state.

Transylvania – homeland for both Romanians and Hungarians.


Stateless nation a nation without a state
Stateless Nation – Nations?... and how did they get that way??a nation without a state


Nation and territory
Nation and Territory Nations?... and how did they get that way??

“The control and maintenance of a territory is as crucial as the control and maintenance of a national language, religion, or particular way of life. Indeed, a language, religion, or way of life is difficult to maintain without control over territory.”

- George White


The economic dimensions of power
The Economic Dimensions of Power Nations?... and how did they get that way??

  • Colonialism

  • Wealth and power

  • Theories concerning power and wealth


European colonialism and the diffusion of the nation state model
European Colonialism and the Nations?... and how did they get that way??Diffusion of the Nation-State Model

Colonialism -

a physical action in which one state takes over control of another, taking over the government and ruling the territory as its own.

Two Waves of European Colonialism:

1500 - 1825

1825 - 1975


Two Waves of Decolonization Nations?... and how did they get that way??

First wave – focused on decolonization of the Americas(1750 -1939)

Second wave – focused on decolonization of Africa and Asia (after 1940)


Theories of political organization
Theories of Political Organization Nations?... and how did they get that way??

These men each sought to describe and explain how power/influence is gained, kept, and diffused among states and throughout the world (geopolitics!)

  • Immanuel Wallerstein: World System Analysis

  • Friedrich Ratzel: Organic Theory

  • Sir Halford Makinder: Heartland Theory

  • Nicholas Spykman: Rimland Theory


Geopolitics
Geopolitics Nations?... and how did they get that way??

Geopolitics – the interplay among geography, power, politics, and international relations… or, how countries try to influence each other to their own benefit.


Critical geopolitics
Critical Geopolitics Nations?... and how did they get that way??

The idea that leaders construct ideas about places, these ideas influence and reinforce their political behaviors and policy choices, and these ideas affect how we, the people, process our own notions of places and politics… in other words, we shape our own actions based on our perceptions and, in turn, our actions influence our perceptions.


How do geopolitics and critical geopolitics help us understand the world

How do Geopolitics and Critical Geopolitics Help us Understand the World?

Key Question:


Immanuel Wallerstein’s Understand the World?

World-Systems Theory:

The world economy has one market and a global division of labor. The world is seen as an interlocked system of states bound together by the world market (capitalism).

Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy.

The world economy has a three-tier structure.


Three tier structure
Three Tier Structure Understand the World?

Core

Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology

* Generate more wealth in the world economy

Periphery

Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology

* Generate less wealth in the world economy

Semi-periphery

Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring. Places that are exploited by the core but then exploit the periphery.

* Serves as a buffer between core and periphery


Classical geopolitics
Classical Geopolitics Understand the World?

German School

Ratzel’s organic state theory

British / American School

Mackinder’s Heartland Theory


Friedrich ratzel s organic theory
Friedrich Ratzel’s Organic Theory Understand the World?

  • Nations functions as an organism (think of the people as that organism’s cells).

  • Organisms need nourishment to survive… “nourishment”= weaker states.

    Ratzel’s theories were baseless conjectures founded in environmental determinism, but they got people thinking about how the world is interconnected… what we now call “geopolitics” … His theories also supplied the NAZIS with their justification for trying to take over the world!


Mackinder’s Heartland Theory: Understand the World?“Who rules East Europe commands the HeartlandWho rules the Heartland commands the World Island Who rules the World Island commands the world”


Spykman s rimland theory
Spykman’s Rimland Theory Understand the World?

  • Who controls the Rimland rules Eurasia

  • Who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world.


Modern challenges to the nation state configuration
Modern Challenges to the Nation-State Configuration Understand the World?

  • Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces

  • Devolution: Ethnic, Economic, Spatial

  • Supranational Organizations


Centripetal forces not a challenge to states but a benefit
Centripetal Forces Understand the World?(not a challenge to States, but a benefit)

  • bind together the people of a state… giving it strength.

  • Nationalism: basing your identity on nationhood… “your country is who you are” very strong mentality… and potentially dangerous. Tools of Nationalism: symbols such as flags and rituals, institutions: military

  • Other Centripetal Forces: systems that literally keep the people close… improved transportation and communication systems


Centrifugal forces
Centrifugal Forces Understand the World?

  • These are destabilizing forces that encourage the country to fall apart. Such as:

  • Weak government/ governmental institutions

  • Strong opposition institutions (often lead to separatist movements)

  • As a result of these types of pressures, some states are experimenting with devolution:


Devolution Understand the World?

Movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state.

-What causes devolutionary movements?

-Ethnocultural forces

-Economic forces

-Spatial forces


Ethnocultural devolutionary movements
Ethnocultural Devolutionary Movements Understand the World?

Eastern Europe

devolutionary forces since the fall of communism

Ethnonationalism: the tendency for an ethnic group to see itself as a distinct nation with a right to independence… this is a fundamental force promoting devolution.


Ethnocultural devolutionary movements1
Ethnocultural Devolutionary Movements Understand the World?

Scotland

rise in independence movement is coupled with:

- European Union

- Scotland’s oil resources


Economic devolutionary movements
Economic Devolutionary Movements Understand the World?

Catalonia, Spain

Barcelona is the center of banking and commerce in Spain and the region is much wealthier than the rest of Spain.

Economic inequalities may also destabilize a nation-state, especially if the inequalities are regional


Spatial devolutionary movements
Spatial Devolutionary Movements Understand the World?

Honolulu, Hawai’i

A history apart from the United States, and a desire to live apart in order to keep traditions alive.

Spatial distance or remoteness can promote devolution, especially if water, desert, or mountains separate the areas from the center of power.


How are boundaries established and why do boundary disputes occur

How are Boundaries Understand the World?Established, and Why do Boundary Disputes Occur?

Key Question:


Boundary – Understand the World?a vertical plane that cuts through the rocks below and the airspace above, dividing one state territory from another.



Establishing boundaries
Establishing Boundaries Kuwait and Iraq

Define

Delimit

Demarcate

Administrate


Types of boundaries
Types of Boundaries Kuwait and Iraq

Geometric boundaries – based on grid systems

eg. Boundary between the US and Canada

Physical-political boundaries – follow an agreed-upon feature in the physical geographic landscape.

eg. Boundary between the US and Mexico


Us versus them
Us versus Them Kuwait and Iraq

Terrorists “come from diverse places but share a hatred for democracy, a fanatical glorification of violence, and a horrible distortion of their religion, to justify the murder of innocents. They have made the United States their adversary precisely because of what we stand for and what we stand against.”

“They [the terrorists] stand against us because we stand in their way.”

“I’ve said in the past that nations are either with us or against us in the war on terror.”


Us versus them1
Us versus Them Kuwait and Iraq

Terrorists “come from diverse places but share a hatred for democracy, a fanatical glorification of violence, and a horrible distortion of their religion, to justify the murder of innocents. They have made the United States their adversary precisely because of what we stand for and what we stand against.”

“They [the terrorists] stand against us because we stand in their way.”

President George W. Bush

“I’ve said in the past that nations are either with us or against us in the war on terror.”

President George W. Bush

President William J. Clinton


Geopolitical world order
Geopolitical World Order Kuwait and Iraq

Temporary periods of stability in how politics are conducted at the global scale.

bi-polar

multi-polar

unilateralism

Will individual states remain the dominant actors in a future geopolitical world order?



Supranational organizations
Supranational Organizations of the State?

A separate entity composed of three or more states that forge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit in pursuit of shared goals.

* How many supranational organizations

exist in the world today?




How does supranationalism affect the state
How does Supranationalism affect the State? of the State?

identities

economics


Electoral geography
Electoral Geography of the State?

A state’s electoral system is part of its spatial organization of government.

In the United States:

- territorial representation

- reapportionment

- voting rights for minority populations


Gerrmandering – of the State?drawing voting districts to benefit one group over another.

Majority-Minority districts drawn so that the majority of the population in the district is from the minority.


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