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Words to Study for Chem. Test. Solid Liquid Gas/Gas Laws Change of State Melting/Melting Point Boiling/Boiling Point Freezing/Freezing Point Evaporation Condensation Sublimation Endo/Exothermic. Mass Weight Matter Physical Properties Chemical Properties Characteristic Properties

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words to study for chem test
Words to Study for Chem. Test
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas/Gas Laws
  • Change of State
  • Melting/Melting Point
  • Boiling/Boiling Point
  • Freezing/Freezing Point
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
  • Sublimation
  • Endo/Exothermic
  • Mass
  • Weight
  • Matter
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Properties
  • Characteristic Properties
  • Physical Changes
  • Chemical Changes
  • Signs of Chem. Change
  • States of Matter
  • Atoms
words to study for chem test1
Words to Study for Chem. Test
  • Chemical Formulas
  • Chemical Equations
  • Reactants
  • Products
  • Subscripts
  • Coefficients
  • Law of Conservation of Mass
  • Decomposition Reaction
  • Replacement Reaction
  • Synthesis Reaction
  • Solution
  • Solubility
  • Suspensions
  • Colloids
  • Pure Substance
  • Element
  • Compound
  • Mixture
  • Homogeneous Mixture
  • Heterogeneous Mixture
chemical formulas
Chemical Formulas
  • A combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
  • Examples
    • H20: Water
    • CO2: Carbon Dioxide
    • NaCl: Salt
    • C6H1206: Sugar
chemical equations
Chemical Equations
  • A representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products
  • Examples

C + O2  CO2

2H2 + O2  2H2O

reactants
Reactants
  • A substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
  • Examples

C + O2  CO2

Reactants

2H2 + O2  2H2O

Reactants

products
Products
  • A substance that forms in a chemical reaction
  • Examples

C + O2  CO2

Product

Zn + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2

Product

subscripts
Subscripts
  • A number written below and to the right of a chemical symbol in a formula
  • Tells how many atoms of that element are present
  • Examples
    • CO2
    • H20
    • C6H12O6
coefficients
Coefficients
  • A number that is placed in front of a chemical symbol or formula
  • Tells how many molecules of that substance are present
  • Keeps reaction balanced
  • Example

2H2 + O2  2H2O

law of conservation of mass
Law of Conservation of Mass
  • Mass is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes
  • Must start and end with the same amount
  • Example

Log + Fire  Ashes + Smoke

30 kg 1 kg 28 kg 3 kg

decomposition reaction
Decomposition Reaction
  • A reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances
  • Example

H2CO3  H2O + CO2

replacement reaction
Replacement Reaction
  • A reaction in which one element takes the place of another element in a compound
  • Example

Zn + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2

synthesis reaction
Synthesis Reaction
  • A reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound
  • Example

2Na + Cl2 2NaCl

solution
Solution
  • A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances evenly dispersed throughout a single phase
  • Looks like one thing
  • Usually when 1 substance is dissolved in another, but not always
    • Examples: Lemonade, Air, Bronze, Gatorade
solubility
Solubility
  • Ability of 1 substance to dissolve in another
  • To dissolve more quickly: Crush it, Stir it, Heat it
  • Solute – the substance that is dissolved
  • Solvent – what substance is being dissolved in
    • Example: Sugar dissolves in water
suspensions
Suspensions
  • A mixture in which particles of a material are more or less evenly dispersed throughout a liquid or gas
  • When you shake it, it looks like one thing, but if you leave it setting, particles will settle to bottom
    • Example: Snow Globe
colloids
Colloids
  • Mixture consisting of tiny particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and those in suspensions
  • Particles aren’t so small that they completely dissolve like solutions, but aren’t so big they settle
    • These particles can scatter light
    • Example: Milk, Mayo, Deodorant
homogeneous mixture
Homogeneous Mixture
  • Looks like or appears to be only 1 substance
  • Example
    • Gatorade
    • Lemonade
heterogeneous mixture
Heterogeneous Mixture
  • Looks like or appears to be more than 1 substance
pure substance
Pure Substance
  • Sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has a definite chemical & physical properties
  • Made of only 1 type of particle
    • Elements or Compounds
  • Elements – made of atoms
  • Compounds – made of molecules
element
Element
  • A substance that can’t be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
  • Pure substance
  • Can’t be broken down at all
  • Made of one type of atom
  • Found listed on Periodic Table
compound
Compound
  • Substance made up of atoms of 2 or more different elements chemically combined with specific mass ratio
  • Can only be separated by chemical changes
  • Made only of molecules
    • H20: Water
    • NaCl: Salt
    • C6H12O6: Sugar
    • Fe2O3: Rust
  • Properties of compound are completely different from the properties of elements that formed it
mixture
Mixture
  • Combination of 2 or more substances that are not chemically combined
  • 2 or more things physically in the same place
    • Examples: Salad, Cereal, Pizza, Omelette
change of state
Change of State
  • Change of a substance from one physical form to another
  • Requires adding or removing energy so that particles can speed up or slow down
endothermic
Endothermic
  • Energy is absorbed by a substance or substances
exothermic
Exothermic
  • Energy is released from a substance or substances
melting
Melting
  • Change of state when a solid becomes a liquid
  • Particles must speed up
  • Add energy/heat
  • Endothermic
melting point
Melting Point
  • Temperature at which a substance melts
  • Water: 32°F or 0°C
freezing
Freezing
  • Change of state from a liquid to a solid
  • Particles must slow down
  • Remove energy/heat
  • Exothermic
freezing point
Freezing Point
  • Temperature at which a substance freezes
  • Water: 32°F or 0°C
evaporation
Evaporation
  • Change of a substance from a liquid to a gas (only on surface)
  • Particles (on surface) must speed up
  • Add energy/heat
  • Endothermic
boiling
Boiling
  • Change of a liquid to a gas (throughout an entire liquid)
  • Particles (on bottom of liquid) must speed up
  • Add energy/heat
  • Endothermic

**Won’t happen unless air pressure equals pressure in bubbles

boiling point
Boiling Point
  • Temperature at which a substance boils
  • Water: 212°F or 100°C
  • At Sea Level: boiling depends on air pressure
condensation
Condensation
  • Change of state from a gas to a liquid
  • Particles must slow down
  • Remove energy/heat
  • Exothermic
sublimation
Sublimation
  • Change of state from a solid to a gas
    • Example: Dry Ice
  • Skips liquid stage
  • Add energy/heat
  • Endothermic
to access the bbc video
To Access the BBC Video:
  • In Internet Explorer, go to www.tinyurl.com/christscience7
  • Click on Unit 2
  • Under Class Files/Links, click on Behavior of Matter Test Bite (BBC)
  • When finished, turn in questions to your period’s colored drawer 
atoms
Atoms
  • Smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
  • Can not be broken down into anything smaller
  • Scientists used to think they couldn’t be split, but we now know that was incorrect
states of matter
States of Matter
  • The physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas
solid
Solid
  • The state of matter in which the volume and shape of a substance are fixed
  • Definite shape
  • Definite volume
  • Particles are tightly packed
  • Particles barely move
    • They vibrate in place
liquid
Liquid
  • The state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape
  • No definite shape
  • Definite volume
  • Particles move fast enough to separate a little
    • Allowing them to change shape
  • Particles do not move fast enough to change volume
liquid continued
Liquid (Continued)
  • Viscosity: a liquid’s resistance to flow
    • High Viscosity: Slow Flow (Honey)
    • Low Viscosity: Fast Flow (Water)
  • Surface Tension: force that attracts the molecules at the surface of a liquid to form the drop
slide41
Gas
  • The state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume
  • No definite shape
  • No definite volume
  • Particles move so fast that they completely separate from each other
    • Allowing them to change shape and volume
gas laws
Gas Laws
  • If Temperature remains Constant, Hallway
    • Volume Increases, Pressure Decreases
    • Volume Decreases, Pressure Increases
    • Inversely Proportional
  • If Pressure remains Constant,  Balloon
    • Temperature Increases, Volume Increases
    • Temperature Decreases, Volume Decreases
    • Directly Proportional
physical changes
Physical Changes
  • A change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties
  • Usually reversible, no change to matter composition
  • End with the same thing you started with
  • Examples:
    • Ripping
    • Crushing
    • Cutting
    • Heating
    • Cooling
    • Coloring
    • All changes of state
chemical changes
Chemical Changes
  • A change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties
  • Never reversible
  • End with something different than you started with
  • Examples:
    • Soured Milk
    • Burning
    • Digesting
    • Cooking/Baking
    • Rotting/Spoiling
    • Tarnishing
signs of a chemical change
Signs of a Chemical Change
  • Change in color
  • Change in temperature
  • Fizzing/Foaming
  • Sound or light being given off
  • New smell
  • New taste
  • Precipitate – when two liquids are mixed together and form a solid
slide46
Mass
  • A measure of the amount of matter in an object
  • Mass of an object is the same no matter where it is located
  • Only way to change is to add or take away matter
  • Unit/Tool:
    • Grams (g)
    • Balance
weight
Weight
  • A measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object
  • Changes when the force of gravity changes
    • Differs on Earth & Mars
  • Unit/Tool:
    • Newtons (N)
    • Spring Scale
matter
Matter
  • Anything that has mass and takes up space
  • Made up of tiny particles called atoms
    • Atoms: smallest particle of matter
physical properties
Physical Properties
  • Can be observed or measured without changing the matter’s identity
  • Adjective – descriptive word
  • Examples
    • Color
    • Smell
    • Size/Shape
    • Texture/Taste
    • Temperature
    • Density
    • State (Solid, Liquid, Gas)
chemical properties
Chemical Properties
  • Substance ability to participate in chemical reactions
  • Hard to observe
  • In order to see these you must change the substance into a new substance
  • Examples
    • Flammability
    • Reactivity
characteristic properties
Characteristic Properties
  • Chemical or physical property that is always the same no matter what size the sample is
  • Can be physical or chemical
  • Most useful type of property
  • Examples
    • Density
    • Flammability
    • Reactivity
    • Boiling Point, Melting Point, Freezing Point
    • Color
    • Smell
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