Merneptah stele aka the menetaph stele aka israel stele
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Merneptah Stele ( aka the Menetaph Stele, aka Israel Stele). Merneptah Stele. Dated to 1209/1208 BCE Inscription by the Ancient Egyptian king Merneptah (reign:1213 to 1203 BC) Found at Thebes. Merneptah Stele.

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Merneptah stele aka the menetaph stele aka israel stele
Merneptah Stele(aka the Menetaph Stele, aka Israel Stele)


Merneptah stele
Merneptah Stele

  • Dated to 1209/1208 BCE

  • Inscription by the Ancient Egyptian king Merneptah (reign:1213 to 1203 BC)

  • Found at Thebes


Merneptah stele1
Merneptah Stele

  • “Canaan is captive with all woe. Ashkelon is conquered, Gezer seized, Yanoam made nonexistent; Israel is wasted, bare of seed.”


Merneptah stele2
Merneptah Stele

  • The determinative accompanying Gezer, Ashkelon and Yanoam indicate they are city-states.

  • The determinative accompanying Israel indicates it is a foreign people, perhaps a nomadic tribe.


Merneptah stele3
Merneptah Stele

  • Scholarly debate about translation for I.si.ri.ar. Some scholars suggest it doesn’t refer to Israel but Jezreel.

  • Only known Egyptian reference to the Israelites

  • Earliest known reference to the Israelites



Mesha stele1
Mesha Stele

  • Commemorates the victory of Mesha, a Moabite king, over Omri the king of Israel.

  • Dated to 840 BCE



Tel dan stele1
Tel Dan Stele

  • Aramaic inscription

  • King of Damascus, Hazael, commemorates a victory over Israel.

  • The inscription includes the phrase, ‘House of David’.

  • Dated to 9th or 8th century BCE


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