It is probable that all heavy matter possesses – latent and bound up with the structure of the atom – a similar quantity of energy to that possessed by radium. If it could be tapped and controlled what an agent it would be in shaping the world’s destiny! The man who
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It is probable that all heavy matter possesses –
latent and bound up with the structure of the atom –
a similar quantity of energy to that possessed by radium.
If it could be tapped and controlled what an agent it
would be in shaping the world’s destiny! The man who
put his hand on the lever by which a parsimonious nature
regulates so jealously the output of this store of energy
would possess a weapon by which he could destroy the
earth if he chose.
443 Total Nuclear Generating Facilities (364.9 GW)
Sources: International Nuclear Safety Center and Energy Information Administration
Billion of Tons of Carbon Emitted per Year
Currently projected path
Compared to a modern coal plant, nuclear would save about 186 g C/kWh or 680 g CO2/y
Total emissions today is about 7 gigatons C/y
Business as usual to 2050 projects about 14 gigatons C/y
700 GW nuclear could save about 1 gigaton C/y
Sites circled in red
unknown pre-mid 2002
Sites circled in red
unknown pre-mid 2002
AFTER: 20 JUN 04
DigitalGlobe Quickbird commercial satellite image
Proposed U.S. GNEP Technology Demonstration Facilities
“Virtually any combination of plutonium isotopes … can be used to make a nuclear weapon… Reactor-grade plutonium is weapons-usable, whether by unsophisticated proliferators or by advanced nuclear weapon states. Theft of separated plutonium, whether weapon-grade or reactor-grade, would pose a grave security risk.”US Department of Energy, Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment of Weapons-Usable Fissile Material Storage and Excess Plutonium Disposal Alternatives, DOE/NN-0007, Washington, D.C., January 1997.
Materials Pathways for Advanced Separations/Recycling
Note: no high-level liquid waste requiring underground tank storage
Countries with negligible nuclear power today, but lots in 2050:
Italy, South Africa, Portugal, Brazil, Argentina, Algeria, Morocco, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines, Vietnam, Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Thailand, North Korea, and several former Soviet republics.
GNEP would reverse 30+ years of no reprocessing in U.S. In that time no new commercial reprocessing anywhere.
, “I am concerned about a trend that we see reflected in the U.S.-India nuclear deal where we try to address proliferation risks by assessing the character of regimes and governments. Such an approach opens up divisions among the world’s nuclear powers, with each making a list of ‘friends’ who can be trusted with nuclear technology, and ‘foes’ who are dangerous risks,”
“Iran’s nuclear ambitions – a modest proposal,” Brent Scowcroft, The National Interest, Spring 2006.
A REPORT ON THE
OF ATOMIC ENERGY
THE SECRETARY OF STATE'S COMMITTEE ON
by a Board of Consultants
Washington, D. C. March 16, 1946
… there is no prospect of security against atomic warfare
in a system of international agreements to outlaw such weapons
controlled only by a system which relies on inspection
and similar police-like methods. The reasons supporting
this conclusion are not merely technical but primarily
the inseparable political, social, and organizational problems
involved in enforcing agreements between nations, each free
to develop atomic energy but only pledged not to use bombs.
So long as intrinsically dangerous activities may be carried
out by nations, rivalries are inevitable and fears are engendered
that place so great a pressure on a system of enforcement by
police methods that no degree of ingenuity or technical competence
could possibly cope with them.