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Igneous Structures: Volcanic. Viscosity. Units: pascal-seconds (kg/m-sec) How many pascals pressure x how many seconds to squash fluid flat? Viscous: Material flows as long as pressure is applied, however small Pseudoviscous: Material flows after some threshold stress.

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Igneous Structures: Volcanic

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Igneous structures volcanic

Igneous Structures: Volcanic



  • Units: pascal-seconds (kg/m-sec)

  • How many pascals pressure x how many seconds to squash fluid flat?

  • Viscous: Material flows as long as pressure is applied, however small

  • Pseudoviscous: Material flows after some threshold stress

Viscosity of common materials

Viscosity of Common Materials

Geologic viscosities

Geologic Viscosities

What drives magma

What Drives Magma?

  • Magma is typically 10% lighter than equivalent solid rock

    • Why pressure inhibits melting

  • Buoyancy drives magma upward

    • Weight of rock around volcanic conduit > weight of magma

  • Gas pressure powers volcanic eruptions

  • Mafic (dense) rocks can sink in crust by viscous flow

Plate tectonics and volcanoes

Plate Tectonics and Volcanoes

A cinder cone wizard island crater lake oregon

A Cinder Cone:Wizard Island, Crater Lake, Oregon

Paricutin mexico 1943 1952

Paricutin, Mexico1943-1952

Anatomy of a cinder cone hawaii

Anatomy of a Cinder Cone, Hawaii

Tuff ring diamond head hawaii

Tuff Ring: Diamond Head, Hawaii

Tuff ring diamond head hawaii1

Tuff Ring: Diamond Head, Hawaii

Shield volcano haleakala hawaii

Shield Volcano: Haleakala, Hawaii



Mount lassen and mount tehama

Mount Lassen and Mount Tehama

Mount shasta california

Mount Shasta, California

Shasta and shastina

Shasta and Shastina

Shastina and landslide deposit

Shastina and Landslide Deposit

Mount shasta and landslide deposit

Mount Shasta and Landslide Deposit

Mount saint helens and spirit lake

Mount Saint Helens and Spirit Lake

May 18 1980

May 18, 1980

The mountain collapses

The Mountain Collapses

Mount st helens

Mount St. Helens

Mt st helens

Mt. St. Helens

Bezymianny russia

Bezymianny, Russia

Lava dome california

Lava Dome, California

Rhyolite plugs and pumice rings

Rhyolite Plugs and Pumice Rings

Rhyolite plugs and pumice ring

Rhyolite Plugs and Pumice Ring

Obsidian dome california

Obsidian Dome, California



Rhyolite plugs and pumice rings1

Rhyolite Plugs and Pumice Rings

Maar nevada

Maar, Nevada

Volcanic neck new mexico

Volcanic Neck, New Mexico

Topographic inversion nevada

Topographic Inversion, Nevada

How calderas form

How Calderas Form

Crater lake oregon

Crater Lake, Oregon

Mount mazama after

Mount Mazama: After

Mount mazama before

Mount Mazama: Before

Jemez caldera new mexico

Jemez Caldera, New Mexico

Valles caldera new mexico

Valles Caldera, New Mexico

Tuff valles caldera new mexico

Tuff, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

Welded tuff california

Welded Tuff, California

Santorini thera greece

Santorini (Thera), Greece

Santorini thera greece1

Santorini (Thera), Greece

Santorini greece

Santorini, Greece

Santorini greece1

Santorini, Greece

Ash layer santorini

Ash Layer, Santorini

Ash layers santorini

Ash Layers, Santorini

What really destroyed the minoan civilization

What Really Destroyed the Minoan Civilization

Collapsing volcanoes hawaii

Collapsing Volcanoes - Hawaii

Molokai scarp

Molokai Scarp

Nuuanu pali oahu

Nuuanu Pali, Oahu

Tambora 1815

Tambora 1815

1816: “Year Without A Summer”

  • 100 cubic km of ash erupted

  • Global sunset color effects for months

  • New England

    • Snow in June and August, Frost in July

    • Exodus to Midwest

  • Europe: High prices, food riots



Long valley caldera

Long Valley Caldera

Long valley caldera1

Long Valley Caldera

Bishop tuff

Bishop Tuff

Compaction of bishop tuff

Compaction of Bishop Tuff

Toba sumatra

Toba, Sumatra

Eyjafjallajokull iceland

Eyjafjallajokull, Iceland

Flood basalts washington

Flood Basalts, Washington

Lava delta washington

Lava “Delta,” Washington

Columnar jointing washington

Columnar Jointing, Washington

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