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Igneous Structures: Volcanic. Viscosity. Units: pascal-seconds (kg/m-sec) How many pascals pressure x how many seconds to squash fluid flat? Viscous: Material flows as long as pressure is applied, however small Pseudoviscous: Material flows after some threshold stress.

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Viscosity
Viscosity

  • Units: pascal-seconds (kg/m-sec)

  • How many pascals pressure x how many seconds to squash fluid flat?

  • Viscous: Material flows as long as pressure is applied, however small

  • Pseudoviscous: Material flows after some threshold stress




What drives magma
What Drives Magma?

  • Magma is typically 10% lighter than equivalent solid rock

    • Why pressure inhibits melting

  • Buoyancy drives magma upward

    • Weight of rock around volcanic conduit > weight of magma

  • Gas pressure powers volcanic eruptions

  • Mafic (dense) rocks can sink in crust by viscous flow



A cinder cone wizard island crater lake oregon
A Cinder Cone:Wizard Island, Crater Lake, Oregon










































What really destroyed the minoan civilization
What Really Destroyed the Minoan Civilization





Tambora 1815
Tambora 1815

1816: “Year Without A Summer”

  • 100 cubic km of ash erupted

  • Global sunset color effects for months

  • New England

    • Snow in June and August, Frost in July

    • Exodus to Midwest

  • Europe: High prices, food riots












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