Figurative Language and Argument. Giving style to your substance. Figurative Language. First Strength: Aids in understanding by likening something unknown to something known. Ex: Watson and Crick. Figurative Language. Aids your argument by making it extremely memorable.
Giving style to your substance
Aids in understanding by likening something unknown to something known.
Ex: Watson and Crick
Aids your argument by making it extremely memorable.
Ex: Langston Hughes
What happens to a dream deferred?
Does it dry up
Like a raisin in the sun?
Or fester like a sore-
And then run?
Does it stink like rotten meat?
Or crust and sugar over-
Like a syrupy sweet?
Maybe it just sags
Like a heavy load.
Or does it explode?
Involve a change in the ordinary signification, or meaning, of a word or phrase
A special arrangement of wordsTwo Main Classifications
Offers an IMPLIED comparison between two things and thereby clarifies and enlivens many arguments.
See page 289
A DIRECT comparison between two things
Easy to spot… “like” and “as”
Compare two different or dissimilar things for special effect
The use of overstatement for special effect. Often used in comedy, but definitely has a place in serious writing.
ex: page 292
Requires a muted, quiet message to make its point. Can be used well in humor or serious writing.
These questions don’t require answers. They are used to assert or deny something about an argument.
ex: p. 294
Shorthand substitutions of a descriptive word or phrase for a proper name.
EDUCATIONPrinceton Cuts Number of A'sGiven to Students Down to 41%
Hopes lower grades will produce a future president.
Source: Ironic Times
Wal-Mart Accused in Court of Denying Workers Lunch Breaks
“They can't afford lunch on what we're paying them,” explains company lawyer.
Source: Ironic Times
Schemes are figures that depend on word order…SYNTAX
Here are a few you are likely to see
Uses grammatically similar words, phrases, or clauses for special effect.
Use of parallel structures to mark contrast or opposition
Inverted word order
Parts of a sentence or clause are not in the usual subject-verb-object order.
Effective repetition for emphasis
Changing the structure of a sentence for special effect, or to make it more memorable
While these techniques are extremely effective, if you over use them you will not achieve your goals. (“stacking the deck”)
Watch the connotations of words
The AP exam is not a “scavenger hunt” for language.
AP essays are weakened by mere listing of fancy terms
Always mark off style, but comment on how it relates to the substance!!!