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Figurative Language and Argument. Giving style to your substance. Figurative Language. First Strength: Aids in understanding by likening something unknown to something known. Ex: Watson and Crick. Figurative Language. Aids your argument by making it extremely memorable.

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Figurative language and argument

Figurative Language and Argument

Giving style to your substance


Figurative language
Figurative Language

First Strength:

Aids in understanding by likening something unknown to something known.

Ex: Watson and Crick


Figurative language1
Figurative Language

Aids your argument by making it extremely memorable.

Ex: Langston Hughes


Langston hughes harlem a dream deferred
Langston Hughes“Harlem-A Dream Deferred”

What happens to a dream deferred?

Does it dry up

Like a raisin in the sun?

Or fester like a sore-

And then run?

Does it stink like rotten meat?

Or crust and sugar over-

Like a syrupy sweet?

Maybe it just sags

Like a heavy load.

Or does it explode?


What do you remember
What do you remember?

Images:

Message:


Two main classifications

Tropes

Involve a change in the ordinary signification, or meaning, of a word or phrase

Schemes

A special arrangement of words

Two Main Classifications


Tropes
Tropes

  • Metaphor

    Offers an IMPLIED comparison between two things and thereby clarifies and enlivens many arguments.

    See page 289


Tropes1
Tropes

Simile

A DIRECT comparison between two things

Easy to spot… “like” and “as”

p. 289-290


Tropes2
Tropes

Analogy

Compare two different or dissimilar things for special effect

p. 290


Tropes3
Tropes

Hyperbole

The use of overstatement for special effect. Often used in comedy, but definitely has a place in serious writing.

ex: page 292


Tropes4
Tropes

Understatement

Requires a muted, quiet message to make its point. Can be used well in humor or serious writing.

p. 293


Tropes5
Tropes

Rhetorical Questions

These questions don’t require answers. They are used to assert or deny something about an argument.

ex: p. 294


Tropes6
Tropes

Antonomasia

Shorthand substitutions of a descriptive word or phrase for a proper name.

p. 294


Tropes7
Tropes

Irony

EDUCATIONPrinceton Cuts Number of A'sGiven to Students Down to 41%

Hopes lower grades will produce a future president.

Source: Ironic Times


Irony
irony

Wal-Mart Accused in Court of Denying Workers Lunch Breaks

“They can't afford lunch on what we're paying them,” explains company lawyer.

Source: Ironic Times


Schemes
Schemes

Schemes are figures that depend on word order…SYNTAX

Here are a few you are likely to see


Schemes1
Schemes

Parallelism

Uses grammatically similar words, phrases, or clauses for special effect.

p. 296


Schemes2
Schemes

Antithesis

Use of parallel structures to mark contrast or opposition

p. 296


Schemes3
Schemes

Inverted word order

Parts of a sentence or clause are not in the usual subject-verb-object order.

p. 296


Schemes4
Schemes

Anaphora

Effective repetition for emphasis

p. 297


Schemes5
Schemes

Reversed Structures

Changing the structure of a sentence for special effect, or to make it more memorable

p. 297


Caution
Caution:

While these techniques are extremely effective, if you over use them you will not achieve your goals. (“stacking the deck”)

Watch the connotations of words


Caution1
Caution

The AP exam is not a “scavenger hunt” for language.

AP essays are weakened by mere listing of fancy terms

Always mark off style, but comment on how it relates to the substance!!!


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