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# Introduction to Inferential Statistics PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Introduction to Inferential Statistics. Based on findings, Reject the Null or Fail to Reject the Null. Comparing the Obtained & Critical Values If Obtained > Critical, then Reject the Ho Can be sure to a certain level (based on α ) that the findings cannot be explained by chance

Introduction to Inferential Statistics

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## Introduction to Inferential Statistics

### Based on findings, Reject the Null or Fail to Reject the Null

• Comparing the Obtained & Critical Values

• If Obtained > Critical, then Reject the Ho

• Can be sure to a certain level (based on α) that the findings cannot be explained by chance

• The difference is due to something other than chance

• If Obtained < Critical, then Fail to Reject the Ho

• Cannot be sure that the findings cannot be explained by chance

• The Ho is the best explanation given the data

### Hypothesis Testing - Regression

• Compare the obtained value and the critical value

• Obtained rxy = .393

• Critical rxy = .349

• Make Decision and State Conclusion

• .393 > .349, therefore reject the null hypothesis

• The rxy is not equal to 0.

• The relationship between the two variables (quality of marriage and quality of parent/child relationship)did occur by something other than chance.

### Hypothesis Testing - Regression

• Compute r2

• r2 = .154

• 15.4% of the quality of the parent/child relationship is explained by the quality of the marriage

### Hypothesis Testing - Regression

• Interpretation

• r(27) = .393, p < .05, r2 = .154

• r = the test statistic used

• 27 = number of degrees of freedom

• .393 = the obtained value of r

• p < .05 = the probability is less than 5% that the relationship between the two variables is due to chance

• There is a significant relationship between the two variables.

### State the Conclusion

• The researcher will report the findings of the testing by supplying a statement in addition to reporting the obtained value and the p-value.

• Ex: “A study was conducted examining the relationships of 378 Chinese married couples over a 2-year period. The study revealed a significant direct relationship between the quality of marriage and the quality of the parent-child relationship, r(27) = .393, p < .05, r2 = .154.” The quality of a marriage explains 15.4% of quality of the parent-child relationship within that marriage.”