Introduction to inferential statistics
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Introduction to Inferential Statistics. Based on findings, Reject the Null or Fail to Reject the Null. Comparing the Obtained & Critical Values If Obtained > Critical, then Reject the Ho Can be sure to a certain level (based on α ) that the findings cannot be explained by chance

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Based on findings reject the null or fail to reject the null
Based on findings, Reject the Null or Fail to Reject the Null

  • Comparing the Obtained & Critical Values

  • If Obtained > Critical, then Reject the Ho

    • Can be sure to a certain level (based on α) that the findings cannot be explained by chance

    • The difference is due to something other than chance

  • If Obtained < Critical, then Fail to Reject the Ho

    • Cannot be sure that the findings cannot be explained by chance

    • The Ho is the best explanation given the data


Hypothesis testing regression
Hypothesis Testing - Regression

  • Compare the obtained value and the critical value

    • Obtained rxy = .393

    • Critical rxy = .349

  • Make Decision and State Conclusion

    • .393 > .349, therefore reject the null hypothesis

      • The rxy is not equal to 0.

    • The relationship between the two variables (quality of marriage and quality of parent/child relationship)did occur by something other than chance.


Hypothesis testing regression1
Hypothesis Testing - Regression

  • Compute r2

    • r2 = .154

      • 15.4% of the quality of the parent/child relationship is explained by the quality of the marriage


Hypothesis testing regression2
Hypothesis Testing - Regression

  • Interpretation

    • r(27) = .393, p < .05, r2 = .154

      • r = the test statistic used

      • 27 = number of degrees of freedom

      • .393 = the obtained value of r

      • p < .05 = the probability is less than 5% that the relationship between the two variables is due to chance

  • There is a significant relationship between the two variables.


State the conclusion
State the Conclusion

  • The researcher will report the findings of the testing by supplying a statement in addition to reporting the obtained value and the p-value.

    • Ex: “A study was conducted examining the relationships of 378 Chinese married couples over a 2-year period. The study revealed a significant direct relationship between the quality of marriage and the quality of the parent-child relationship, r(27) = .393, p < .05, r2 = .154.” The quality of a marriage explains 15.4% of quality of the parent-child relationship within that marriage.”


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