Introduction to inferential statistics
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Introduction to Inferential Statistics. Based on findings, Reject the Null or Fail to Reject the Null. Comparing the Obtained & Critical Values If Obtained > Critical, then Reject the Ho Can be sure to a certain level (based on α ) that the findings cannot be explained by chance

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Introduction to Inferential Statistics

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Introduction to inferential statistics

Introduction to Inferential Statistics


Based on findings reject the null or fail to reject the null

Based on findings, Reject the Null or Fail to Reject the Null

  • Comparing the Obtained & Critical Values

  • If Obtained > Critical, then Reject the Ho

    • Can be sure to a certain level (based on α) that the findings cannot be explained by chance

    • The difference is due to something other than chance

  • If Obtained < Critical, then Fail to Reject the Ho

    • Cannot be sure that the findings cannot be explained by chance

    • The Ho is the best explanation given the data


Hypothesis testing regression

Hypothesis Testing - Regression

  • Compare the obtained value and the critical value

    • Obtained rxy = .393

    • Critical rxy = .349

  • Make Decision and State Conclusion

    • .393 > .349, therefore reject the null hypothesis

      • The rxy is not equal to 0.

    • The relationship between the two variables (quality of marriage and quality of parent/child relationship)did occur by something other than chance.


Hypothesis testing regression1

Hypothesis Testing - Regression

  • Compute r2

    • r2 = .154

      • 15.4% of the quality of the parent/child relationship is explained by the quality of the marriage


Hypothesis testing regression2

Hypothesis Testing - Regression

  • Interpretation

    • r(27) = .393, p < .05, r2 = .154

      • r = the test statistic used

      • 27 = number of degrees of freedom

      • .393 = the obtained value of r

      • p < .05 = the probability is less than 5% that the relationship between the two variables is due to chance

  • There is a significant relationship between the two variables.


State the conclusion

State the Conclusion

  • The researcher will report the findings of the testing by supplying a statement in addition to reporting the obtained value and the p-value.

    • Ex: “A study was conducted examining the relationships of 378 Chinese married couples over a 2-year period. The study revealed a significant direct relationship between the quality of marriage and the quality of the parent-child relationship, r(27) = .393, p < .05, r2 = .154.” The quality of a marriage explains 15.4% of quality of the parent-child relationship within that marriage.”


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